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  • 11/11/10--08:56: Romania
  • Link to introductory page

    Romanian manholes are frequently corroded or worn, with any inscriptions that may once have been in the centre obliterated. Many are in any case anonymous, with few distinctive patterns to be found. Special designs for individual communities are rare. Older manholes can be found with German or Hungarian inscriptions, reflecting the political situation before 1920.

    Manholes in Romania frequently bear the inscription STAS 2308. This is the national standard for water supply and sewerage: covers and frames for manholes. The version most commonly cited is [19]81 but examples can also be seen for earlier versions of the standard in 1951, 1952 and later, a useful guide for dating.

    An anonymous example of the 1951 standard reference seen in Cluj-Napoca.
    ALBA IULIA
    Municipiul Alba Iulia. Fundicion Ductil Fabregas Igualada. The products of this Spanish company are widely found in Romania.
    BUZAU
    Grup Romet Buzau.
    Grup Romet, a holding company, manufactures products for water supply and sewage networks, filters and equipment for water treatment, tractors, agricultural machinery, fire extinguishers, machine tools and gas installations. It was founded 1 September 1928 by Iulius Horer as Metalurgica Factory and Foundry at 15, Brailei Road, the current site of S.C. Aromet S.A., the oldest industrial company in Buzau. On the Aromet structure was built the Grup Romet holding company, incorporating eight companies. In 2010 it was one of the biggest Romanian suppliers for the water industry with premises covering over 150,000 square metres and more than 800 employees.
    CLUJ-NAPOCA
    Kolozsvar sz. kir. varos vizmuve.
    This manhole, inscribed in Hungarian dates from before the Trianon Treaty of 1920 Kolozsvar varosi vizmuvek.
    The omission of the term kir[aly] dates this manhole a little later than the previous one.
    Uzinele de apa si canalizare, Cluj. An unusual example with an inverted letter J.
    Uzinele de apa si canalizare, Cluj. This time the J is not inverted.
    Coop-Metalo Lemn Cluj Stas 2308-52.
    Presumably a product of the communist era, the Cooperativa Metalo-Lemn (Metal and Wood Cooperative) is mentioned in a document no. 369 886 issued 15 March 1968.
    Turnatoria Metulul apa canal Cluj.
    Turnatoria Metalul S.R.L. was founded in 1992 and is located in Cluj-Napoca, Cluj county. With 167 employees in 2010 it manufactured a wide range of castings from ferrous and nonferrous materials.
    Apa canal CUC Cluj.
    Probably another product of Turnatoria Metalul S.R.L.
    GHEORGHENI
    Transmetal S.R.L. was registered in 1991 (Registry No. J19/430/1991) and is a company involved in the casting of iron
    HUNEDOARA
    SC Elis SA.
    Located in Hunedoara, str. Ecaterina Varga nr.3 in 2010, SC Elis SA manufactures cast iron and other metal products.
    IASI
    Turnomex SRL is a manufacturer of ferrous castings based in 2010 at Bulevardul. N.Iorga 5, Bl.C5, Sc.A, Ap.8, Iasi.
    LUGOJ
    Timisul Lugoj, STAS 2308 62. Seen in Timisoara.
    Timisul Lugoj, STAS 2308 62. A different design seen in Sighisoara.
    ORADEA
    SC Fonti PSR Oradea, STAS 2308 61. Seen in Timisoara.
    RAMNICU SARAT
    Founded in 1994, Tupremo SA is located in Ramnicu Sarat, Str. Balta Alba 60a, Buzau County. It produces a wide range of manhole covers, underground hydrant boxes, parts for agricultural machinery, products and ferrous materials. In 2010 it had 60 employees, mainly working for the Romanian market.
    SATU MARE
    Saturn S.A., established in 1950 in Satu Mare, is a large company specialised in metal processing and machinery production.
    SIBIU
    Canalisation Nagyszeben Hermannstadt, And. Rieger
    The use of Hungarian and German indicates a date prior to the Treaty of Trianon in 1920.
    Sibiu Hermannstadt 2007, Norinco
    The nomination of Sibiu as European City of Culture in 2007 resulted in a mass order of these distinctive manhole covers, a heraldic design extremely rare in Romania. Note that the text is in Romanian and German with the Hungarian name of Nagyszeben omitted, an interesting example of linguistic politics. The cover was made by Norinco, a French company founded in 1971, and was probably cast in Saint Crépin Ibouvillers, where Norfond, the group's new foundry was built in 1992.
    STAS 2308-62 I.J J.L Sibiu. Seen in Targu Mures.
    SIGHISOARA
    Sighisoara. STAS 2308-58. Seen in Sighisoara. The central inscription is shallow, badly worn and difficilt to decipher, typical of many manhole covers in Romania.
    TARGU-MURES
    The Triplast Company of Targu-Mures was set up in February 2002, and is the first producer in Romania of plastic products using rotomolding technology. This item was made for the company by Fundicion Ductil Fabregas of Igualada, Spain.
    TIMISOARA
    Timisoara Aquatim. Seen in Timisoara.
    UNLOCATED FOUNDRIES
    Flacara-PL, STAS 2308-81. Seen in Sinaia.

    Copyrighr © Ian Maxted 2010

    This page last revised 31 March 2012

    Link to introductory page


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  • 11/11/10--09:44: Switzerland
  • Link to introductory page

    Swiss manholes are for the most part very unimaginative, usually simply with a chequerboard pattern, sometimes with the name of the foundry inscribed. Common throughout the country are the products of the Von Roll foundry. There are relatively few obvious imports although Pont-à-Mousson has been spotted on occasion and also Buderus and other German foundries. Not a fruitful destination for the operculist.

    BERN
    Bern manholes often have bears on them
    Kanalisation. GE [with bear as symbol of Bern].
    Tiefbauamt Bern
    Giesserei Bern
    Keller & Co., Bern
    Alf. Marti, Bern. Seen in Thörishaus
    Von Roll Werk Bern
    Most Von Roll covers refer to Rondez, presumably the locality Les Rondez, near to Delémont where they have one of their main production centres.
    Emmenbrucke
    Rondez
    Von Roll, TT. Seen on top of Simplon Pass
    The firm of Von Roll Casting AG produces ductile and gray cast iron products, ductile cast-iron pipes and fittings with polymer coating, valves, hydrants and municipal castings such as gully grates, manhole covers and channel gratings. The production sites at Emmenbrücke and Rondez apply the moulding method "machine-moulded green sand casting"; at the production site Choindez, they produce pipes by means of centrifugation as well as fittings by hand moulding. Founded in 1803 by Karl Dürholz who planned as a representative of the Solothurn company of Felix Brunner to set up a smelting furnace in Matzendorf but became independent with his brother when they founded the Eisenwerke der Handelsgesellschaft der Gebrüder Dürholz. The firm takes its present name from Ludwig von Roll (1771–1839) who joined the company in 1809. In 1883 von Roll acquired the works in from the Société des Forges de Vallorbe et des Rondez which had gone into liquidation.
    Two further typical Von Roll covers
    STEFFISBURG
    K.Santschi, Steffisburg. Seen in Bern.
    UNLOCATED
    Eisenwerk Klus. Seen in Bern, perhaps a local foundry connected with the Von Roll enterprise who opened a foundry at this location in 1810.

    Link to introductory page


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  • 01/18/11--12:35: England: coalhole covers
  • Link to introductory page

    In England the precursors of manhole covers are the coalhole covers. In the 19th century many buildings in larger towns had a coal hole in the pavement to allow the coal merchant to empty his sacks into the coal bunker, which was often in the cellar at the front of the house, without the need to enter the house. The hole was normally between 30 and 60 cm in diameter and was lined by a cast-iron ring and and covered by a cast-iron plate. This often advertised the name of the maker. One cover by J W Cunningham of 196 Blackfriars Road reportedly features a dog with his head in a pot, a sign is derived from the early trade sign for an ironmonger. They were normally given a raised pattern to prevent slipping and some include glass or concrete panels. Covers are more common from from the 1860s onwards but became redundant after the implementation of the Clean Air Acts. In the later 19th century Shepard Taylor was attracted by their varied designs and studied them, coining the word 'opercula' from the Latin for a cover. They have also inspired artists and even embroiderers and there have been several exhibitions of rubbings of coalhole covers. A recent limited edition book on the subject, with many illustrations, results from a project undertaken by the artist Maria Vlotides . It is called Pavement poetry and was published by Pedestrian Publishing in December 2010. See details on the Pedestrian Publishing website.

    An attractive anonymous design. Seen in Judd Street, London
    Safety plate improved. Seen in London.
    Carron. Seen in London and Brighton
    Durey, seen in London
    Two examples of simple designs without information on the place of production, which are quite widely found.
    London

    In London coalholes can be found in areas like Bloomsbury, Kensington, Pimlico or Paddington. Gordon Square and surrounding streets has a good selection but they are often removed during street improvements.

    Ashton & Green, London, Dublin & Bristol
    Frederick Bird & Co engineers & ironfounders, London W. Self fastening plate
    Brough, London. Seen in Ludlow
    J.W.Carpenter Ltd, 188-190 Earls Court Road, SW
    Clark, Hunt & Co, Shoreditch. Seen in Brighton
    Hayward Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough. Seen in Clifton. Hayward's products are widely found in London and the provinces. Apart from the patent self-locking plates, they are one of the few manufacturers to insert glass panels to provide light in cellars. Their large glazed gratings can be found in front of many Victorian buildings.
    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London. Seen in Bristol
    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London
    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London
    [Hayward] Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough, 1854. Seen in Henley.
    The Hope Foundry Co., 5, Upper Thames St., London E.C.
    Nettleton & Co., Sloane Square, London S.W. Seen in Eaton Place, London
    R.H. & J.Pearson's patent automatic action, Notting Hill Gate
    Pike & Co, 168 Ebury Street Pimlico. Seen in Grosvenor Gardens, London
    Pryle & Palmer, 40/41 Upper Thames Street
    A. Smellie, Westminster. Seen in Eaton Place, London.
    Clifton, Bristol
    Blank coal hole cover, 1820s? Seen in Paragon, Clifton, Bristol. Early square example.
    Decorative coalhole cover, 1840s? Seen in Clifton, Bristol. Compare the dated Ludlow example of a cellar trap-door below.
    C.Hodges, Ludlow, 1846. With similar floral decorative features to early coalhole covers in Clifton.
    Brighton
    T.W.Porter, Star Foundry, Brighton
    Lewes, Sussex
    Every Phoenix Ironworks, Lewes. Seen in Brighton
    J.Every, Lewes. Seen in Brighton

    Link to introductory page


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  • 01/20/11--14:26: England: London
  • Link to introductory page


    Ashton & Green, London, Dublin & Bristol

    Frederick Bird & Co engineers & ironfounders, London W. Self fastening plate

    Frederick Bird & Co West Drayton near London, engineers. Seen in Weymouth.

    Brough, London. Seen in Ludlow

    Burn Bros, London. Seen in Brighton

    J.W.Carpenter Ltd, 188-190 Earls Court Road, SW

    Clark, Hunt & Co, Shoreditch. Seen in Brighton

    Doulton & Co. Ltd, works London & Paisley. Seen in Didcot.

    A. Emanuel & Sons Ltd No. patent 11762 air tight manhole, George Street, Manchester Square. Seen in Devizes

    Ham Baker & Co Ltd, Westminster S.W. Fire hydrant

    Ham Baker &Co. Ltd, Westminster S.W. Fire hydrant. Seen in Totnes.

    Ham Baker & Co. Ltd, Westminster S.W. Keymac

    T.W.Harmsloe [?], Westminster, MPd [?] double joint manhole. Seen in Henley. Inscription unclear.

    Hayward Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough. Seen in Clifton. Hayward's products are widely found in London and the provinces. Apart from the patent self-locking plates, they are one of the few manufacturers to insert glass panels to provide light in cellars. Their large glazed gratings can be found in front of many Victorian buildings.

    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London. Seen in Bristol

    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London

    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London

    [Hayward] Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough, 1854. Seen in Henley.

    The Hope Foundry Co., 5, Upper Thames St., London E.C.

    Knowles, London. Seen in Pendeen, Cornwall.

    Nettleton & Co., Sloane Square, London S.W. Seen in Eaton Place, London

    Parkinson and Ward Cowan. Cowan branch, London, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Manchester & Sydney. Seen in Weymouth.

    R.H. & J.Pearson's patent automatic action, Notting Hill Gate

    Pike & Co, 168 Ebury Street Pimlico. Seen in Grosvenor Gardens, London

    Pryke & Palmer, 40/41 Upper Thames Street

    Pryke & Palmer, Upper Thames [Street]. Seen in Devizes

    A. Smellie, Westminster. Seen in Eaton Place, London.

    J. Stone & Co., Deptford, London S.E. Seen in Henley

    J.Stone & Co. Ltd, Deptford, London S.E. Seen in Croydon

    Winser & Co., Inspection cover, London S.W., Buckingham Palace Rd. Seen at Lyme Regis.

    Winser and Co. are not recorded in the 1882 Post Office London directory so were probably established after that date. Plumbing practice by J. Wright Clarke (London, New York: The Engineering and Building Record, 1888) states:
    WINSER & Co. are Patentees and Manufacturers of several approved Appliances, such as Channel Bends, Traps, Manhole Covers, &c,, &c., ot which particulars may be had on application. They are prepared to undertake and carry out work of any description, either in large or small jobs, at the lowest remunerative price. They are, however, neither able nor willing to compete with "skin plumbers," as they only put in good work and material. Sole Address : works:- Belgrave Buildings, SW. Winser & Co., 52, Buckingham Palace Road, London, S.W.


    The Leicestershire, Leicester and Rutland Record Office includes in the Records of Ellistown Colliery Co. Ltd. and Ellistown Brick, Pipe and Fireclay works and Estates Ltd:
    • DE4939/975/1-2 1893, 1894: Illustrated catalogues of Improved Sanitary Appliances, Winser & Co., Sanitary Engineers, London SW

    • DE4939/981 April 1897: Price list Joseph Cliff & Sons, Wortley, Leeds, manufacturers of Winser's channels, bends etc. for manholes
    Winser & Co. Ltd (sanitary & drainage goods of Buckingham Palace Road is recorded in a book advert in 1902. The Old Bailey Sessions Papers records for March 14th, 1902:
    FREDERICK SAWYER WINSER. I am a sanitary engineer, one of the firm of Winser & Co. These three cheques were stolen from me. I gave no authority to the prisoner to pass them, nor to anyone to sign them.
    British progress in municipal engineering a series of three lectures by William Henry Maxwell (London, A. Constable & co., Ltd. , 1904) records Winser & Co 52, Buckingham Palace Road, S.W. as a participant. The London Manual for 1907 by Robert Donald (London: Edward Lloyd, 1907) has an advertisement for their illustrated catalogue of improved sanitary appliances.
    Winser and Co. are recorded as sanitary engineers at Buckingham Palace Road in the 1915 Post Office London directory.
    A.C.Woodrow & Co., London. Seen in Wilton A.C.Woodrow & Co., engineers, London.
    Greater London boroughs Bromley, formerly in the county of Kent, boasts a long series of dated covers, three examples of which are given here. The design has varied little over the years, indeed the same mould seems to have been reused for long periods. The odd size of the final number 5 in 1925 is evidence of this.
    B.B.C. Bromley, 1905, Rd 407588. B.B.C. Bromley, 1925, Rd 407588. T.B.C. Bromley, 1954, Rd 407588. City of Westminster.
    Copyright © Ian Maxted, 2010
    This page last updated 31 August 2012

    Link to introductory page


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  • 02/07/11--03:48: Belgium
  • Link to introductory page

    BRUGES
    J.De Jaeger, Bruges
    B[ruges] Drinkwaterleiding, Brugge STAD Brugge
    A de Clerck, Brugge
    BRUSSELS
    Bruxelles, distribution d'eau Deglume. Seen in Ypres
    GHENT
    Water, Stad Gent
    LIEGE
    Vennes. Liege. Cie Gle des Conduites d'Eau. Seen in Kavala, Greece
    VIRTON
    Distribution d'eau, province de Luxembourg. Seen in Virton
    YPRES
    Useines & fonderies De La Croyere. Seen in Ypres
    Ieper water. Seen in Ypres

    Link to introductory page

    Revised 20 Apr 2011

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  • 02/07/11--04:31: Austria
  • Link to introductory page

    Gmund
    ABD Gmund
    Graz
    Graz. Exhibit by the International Manhole Museum
    Krems
    Stadt Krems, Knanlisation. A product of the Wallner & Neubert foundry.
    Linz
    Stadtgemeinde Linz, Kanal
    Malta
    Kanalisation, Malta
    Villach
    Karntner Masch-Fabriken, Villach
    Unlocated
    Wallner & Neubert. Seen in Grein, but widespread in Austria with covers specially produced for individual towns.

    Link to introductory page


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  • 04/19/11--08:46: Greece
  • Link to introductory page

    Lack of familiarity with the Greek language has meant that the full range of manhole covers has not been tackled. There are undoubtedly many covers with inscriptions relating to the local municipality and founders' names also appear, often with their telephone numbers. Names are often abbreviated, sometimes to the first letter only, for example ΔΘ means D[imos] Th[essaloniki]. Dates also figure frequently. While there are some striking designs, there is not much to arouse the interest of the operculist and unfortunately most of the covers are of recent date. Covers have been arranged by the place in which they were seen rather than by the place of production.

    Agios Nikolaos, Chalkadiki
    Martha Chr. Kotsaridou
    Alexandroupoli
    DEYAA Xytirion A Spasos Til 650 398 Thes/Niki
    Xytirion Hellas 4XL Lagkada AB K Spasos Til 513338
    Athens
    Eydap 2007 Xytometal 2831628
    Dimos Athinaion 1985. Afoi Maniedaki Til 5575225
    Athinion Dimos 1932
    Corfu
    Nero
    Etos 1990
    55243. Elot en 124 D 400
    Ioannina
    Eydap 1985 Apsdinid T2468995
    Degai 1990
    Stigkas 0296 33892 Athan Egos 1989
    Eythap 1985 Aithinis T 2468995
    D.E.Y.A.I. 1998. A Pont-à-Mousson cover.
    Kalambaki
    Dimos Kalam/Kas 1999. Afo: Maniedaki Til: 5591.136-137-138
    Deyat Ombria Topizogloy Los
    Kavala
    Dimos Kavalas 1961
    Xythria Aggelopoulos Kavala
    Levkados
    Dimos Levkados 198
    Dimos Levkados 1983
    Litochoro
    Baloykas G 9802 Katerini
    Messalongi
    A Stylianiai 780048. Also seen in Agios Nikolaos, Chalkadiki.
    OAP Xytirion X.Papavasileo
    Nafplio
    Leya 1997. A Stylianidi 780048
    D. O. Anatidstopoyloi 1908 []opsmos As[...]. An unusually early dated example, but the text is unclear.
    Neos Marmoras
    D. Sithonias T D Marmara
    Xytiria Misailidi Thes-Niki 650657
    Pylos
    Xytiria Metallon. Afoi Maniedaki Til.: 5591.136-137-138
    Rhodes
    D.E.Y.A.R. Apoxeteysi. Pont à Mousson. Aksess 400
    D.E.Y.A.R. Ombria. Also a Pont-à-Mousson cover.
    Rio
    Deya Rioy
    Sparta
    Deyas 1987 A-Siagkris T 3460595
    Xytiria Metallon. A Siagkris T 3460595
    Thessaloniki
    Dimos Thessalonikis Istoriko Kentro 1996. Xytiria Misailidi
    Dimos Thessaloniki. A strongly embossed pattern reminiscent of older French manhole covers.
    Afoi Misaildi Xytiria Thes-niki 681 657 1997 OAB
    D[imos] Th[essaloniki] 1953
    Tolo
    Afoi Misaildi Xytiria Thes-niki 681 657 1995 OAB
    Trikala
    Deyat Etos 1983 Maniedaki Afoi Til 5575225

    Link to introductory page

    Last revised: 22 Apr 2011

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  • 05/01/11--05:34: Turkey
  • Link to introductory page

    The exploration of Turkey's manholes was confined to the European part of the country and this and lack of familiarity with the Turkish language has meant that the full range of manhole covers has not been tackled. Inscriptions relating to the local municipality have been noted but generally there does not appear to be a great deal to interest the operculist from the point of view of design. Covers in this page have been arranged by the place in which they were seen rather than by the place of production. Diacriticals have not been inserted in the transcriptions.

    Canakkale
    Canakkale Belediyesi. Erkus Kanalizasyon Canakkale. Kimelsan AS. A bi-colour plastic cover
    Eceabat
    Iller Bankasi Kanalizasyon
    Edirne
    Illerbankasi Kanalizasyon. Erkus Dokum Kovya Edirne Belediyesi. With monogram logo of Edirne Edirne. BL. Kapagi Kanalizasyon. Iller Bankasi. Br Us Dokum
    Istanbul
    Istanbul Buyukseh/p Belediyesi TC Bakirkoy Bei Ldiyesi Konya Oerkus
    Kumbag
    Kumbag Belediyesi Kanalizasyon
    Selimpasa
    Ist B Sehir Bi ISKI Yagmursuyu ISKI Kanalizasyon Yol Bakim Onarim Mud. Istanbul Buyuksehir Belediyesi. Yagmir Suyu

    Link to introductory page

    Last revised: 15 May 2011

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  • 10/17/11--14:21: Morocco
  • Moroccan manholes show the influence of the many years that the country spent as a French "protectorate". Many of the heavy monumental covers reflect the solidity of early designs of foundries such as that at Pont-a-Mousson or the Durenne foundry in Paris. The fact that Arabic script is only rarely present is a further reflection of French influence. Unfortunately the untidy nature of the street scene in the country means that the covers are rarely in good condition and suitable examples for photography are difficult to find.
    Casablanca


    Akhayat. Casablanca. Seen in Sefrou

    A.Balayer. Casablanca. Seen in Ifrane

    Tabors. Casablanca. Seen in Meknes

    Fonderie des Tabors. Casablanca. Seen in Ribat-el-Kheir

    Tabors. Casablanca. PTT. A telephone cover seen in Rabat
    Fes

    Ville de Fes
    Gharb

    Dhis[si F.] du Gharb. Seen in Ifrane. Inscription worn

    Fon du Gharb. Seen in Chefchaouen
    Kenitra

    J Cherel fondeur Kenitra. E Brissard entr. Seen in Kenitra railway station.

    Kenitra Meta-Meca. Seen in Chefchaouen and many other towns.

    [Kenitra] Meta-Meca. With Arabic inscription. Seen in Rabat.

    Ville du Kenitra. Dhissi F du Gharb. Seen in Martil.
    Meknes

    Fonderie Vargas, Meknes.
    Rabat

    Fonderie Moderne SA Rabat. ONEP. Seen in Moulay Idriss.

    Fonderie Nouvelle, Rabat.

    Rabat. Probably from Fonderie Nouvelle as it has a similar pattern.

    Ville de Rabat, Meta-Meca. See also Kenitra for other Meta Meca examples.
    Sale

    Sale. FPI. Seen in Assilah.

    Oulja Sale. Seen in Rabat.

    FPI Oulja de Sale Tle 781968. ONPT. Office National de Postes et Telecommunications cover seen in Sefrou.
    Sefrou

    Assainissement. Sefrou. FPI
    Tetouan

    Tetuan. Acometida.
    Empresa Torres Quevedo. This is an organisation which is loctaed in Tetouan. Seen in Assilah.
    Unlocated

    Alma assainissement. Seen in Kenitra.
    Volubilis
    Perhaps an early manhole cover design - there is reputedly a carved drain cover on this Roman site but this may not be the same.
    This page last updated 16 Oct 2011.

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  • 01/25/12--05:34: Spain: Andalucia
  • Link to introductory page

    Andalucian manholes come in a wide variety of designs with many smaller municipalities having their own patterns. Particularly unusual are the leaf-like designs emanating from foundries in Cadiz and Seville.

    Cadiz
     Talleres del Sur Cadiz. Seen in Alcala de Gazules.  Fundicion Hijo de Garcia 2A Acuada Cadiz. Seen in Vejer.
    Cordoba
     Ayuntiamento de Cordoba. Alcantarillado. La Merced Cordoba  Servicio Municipal Aguas Potables. Cordoba.
    Jimena de la Frontera
     Aguas Potables. Ayto Jimena de la Frontera. Fundicion Gonzales. Presumably produced by the Gonzales foundry in Cordoba.
    Malaga
     Saneamiento Malaga.
    Excmo. ayuntiamiento Malaga. Servicio de aguas.
    Orgiva
    Saneamiento de Orgiva. Dir. Gral de Arquitectura M. Vivienda
    Ronda
    Saneamiento Ronda 
    Saneamiento Ronda
    Seville
    Metalurgica Sevillana
    Seen in Tarifa. Prida Sevilla
    Seen in Zahara.
    Torrox
    Saneamiento Torrox Ayuntiamiento

    Saneamiento Torrox Ayuntiamiento


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  • 12/31/15--03:41: Introduction
  • An international survey of manhole covers

    British Isles: England (also pages for Coalhole covers, London, Devon, Exeter, Sussex), 

    Southern Europe: Italy, International Manhole Cover Museum, Portugal, Spain (also page for Andalucia).

    Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway, Sweden

    Outside Europe: Morocco, Central America, Trinidad


    In the small town of Comacchio, a little south of Venice, the International Manhole Museum put on a display in 2006. It gathered together examples of manhole covers from across Europe, revealing the civic pride in street furniture which exists in many towns and cities, and providing visual evidence of the work of many local industries.
    Exterior of the Museum in Comacchio
    International Manhole Museum display


    Since learning of an exhibition of rubbings of coalhole covers in London in the 1960s we had retained an interest in such items of street ironmongery and were now inspired to seek out unusual examples of manhole covers during our travels. We have discovered that many of the early products of local foundries are increasingly being replaced by standard covers manufactured by foundries which are not necessarily even in the same country. In addition many manhole coveres are being stolen for their scrap metal - among many other places this happened in Alençon, Normandy, during 2010. It seems that in many parts of Europe our survey is recording aspects of the street scene that are fast disappearing.

    Ian and Jill Maxted




    Bergen. Exhibit by the International Manhole Museum, later seen in situ.
    Preparing a manhole cover for photography, Ratzeburg, Germany


    Together with fire, agriculture and the wheel, the efficient distribution of clean water and the safe removal of foul water are basic requirements for a civilised society. The techniques of water supply were highly developed by ancient civilizations across the world, for example in Rome or Sri Lanka, but largely fell into decline in medieval times.

    Modern water supply and sewerage systems are a product of the increasing urbanisation brought about by the industrial revolution in the 19th century. Mechanised foundries were now able to cast water mains and manhole covers. The laying of water mains and sewerage systems for a large town, such as Bazalgette undertook for London in the 19th century, was a major engineering achievement, of which municipal authorities were justifiably proud, and inscriptions record the unveiling of reservoirs, pumping stations, fountains and in many cases the local authority even put its mark on individual manhole covers. It is therefore sad that local manhole covers are being increasingly swept away by the dull uniformity of the products of major foundries such as PAM-Gobion, whose products are to be found all over Europe.

    The purpose of this website is to record some of the individual products of local municipalities and foundries before they are replaced, and to encourage local authorities to take more pride in the provision of these vital but hidden services, perhaps by commissioning special designs to enliven the local streetscape. In some countries such as Scandinavia, Germany or Hungary this practice is widespread, but it is an example that could be followed elsewhere.

    Last revised: 25 January 2012

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  • 03/17/16--10:42: Japan
  • No compilation dedicated to manhole covers would be complete without reference to Japan, a relative late-comer to the scene but which has more than made up for this by the colourful diversity of its designs. There has been evidence of sewage systems in Japan for some 2,000 years but western systems of sewage engineering were introduced to the major cities in the late 19th century together with manhoru (a Japanese rendering of manhole, like futoboru for football). Early manhole covers used geometric designs similar to those in other countries. In the 1980s there was a drive to extend modern sewage systems to smaller communities but many public works projects were met with resistance until a bureaucrat decided to make these systems aesthetically acceptable by commissioning customised manhole covers. Designs are decided after asking the public for ideas, or through a competition among manufacturers. They differ from area to area, and often feature flowers and animals used as symbols in respective communities, or yuru kyara (local mascots). By 2010 nearly 95% of the 1,780 municipalities in Japan had their own customized manhole covers. In that year was published Drainspotting by Remo Camerota (Mark Batty Publisher, 2010. 96 pages. ISBN-13: 978-0982075470) which "celebrates an array of fascinating manhole cover designs from Japan". Popularity of Japanese manhole cover has grown and there are a number of websites accessed in 2016 with excellent illustrations, for example Amazing manhole covers from Japan or The art of the Japanese manhole.

    In March 2016 the Japanese manhole entered the mainstream of popular culture with the issue of as series of collectable cards featuring pictures of manhole covers with unique designs became available in a project to raise interest in the nation’s sewage system led by GKP, a group which includes officials from local governments and the central government ministry’s sewage management department. Developed in cooperation with a toy maker, they will be distributed for free to anyone who wants one at sewage plants and other facilities. Pictures of the manholes will be on one side of the cards, which are roughly business card size, while explanations about their designs will feature on the reverse side. The first batch of manhole cards was unveiled at a “manhole summit,” held by GKP in Tokyo on 19 March 2016.

    The following images are taken from Wikimedia Commons and my captions employ the Japanese haiku verse form.

    Nishimera


    Wikimedia Commons, Copyright Sanjo 2008

    In Nishimera
    Where the waters flow beneath
    Darts a metal sprite

    Shizuoka


    Wikimedia Commons, Copyright Sanjo 2008

    Swallows circle flags
    On the ground, not up aloft
    In Shizuoka

    Tokyo


    Wikimedia Commons, Copyright Sanjo 2008

    Not crushed under foot
    Although we trample them
    The cherry blossoms

    Tokyo


    Wikimedia Commons, Copyright Sanjo 2008
    A metal flower
    Bursts into a steely bloom
    On Tokyo's streets

    [Unlocated]


    Wikimedia Commons, Copyright Sanjo 2008

    Step quickly aside
    Let loose the waters' torrent
    For fire fighters

    Copyright © Ian Maxted and the photographers individually credited
    This page last updated St Patrick's day, 2016


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    SOUTH WEST ENGLAND. There are separate pages for Devon and Exeter.


    CORNWALL.
    Bude. Gregory.

    Gregory & Sons Bude.

    Bude. Heard.

    Heard, Bude.

    Cornwall. Camborne Redruth RDC.

    CRUDC, foul sewer. Seen in Pendeen. [Camborne Redruth UDC].

    Cornwall. Camborne Redruth RDC.

    CRUDC. Foul sewer. Seen in Pendeen. Camborne and Redruth UDC.

    Devoran. Visick.

    W Visick & Sons Ltd, Devoran. Seen in Penzance. Inscription on flat surface.

    Devoran. Visick.

    W Visick & Sons Ltd, Hydratn, Devoran. Seen in Penzance. Inscription on flat surface. Different arrangement of bezels.

    Devoran. Visick.

    W Visick & Sons Ltd, Devoran. Seen in Newlyn.

    Devoran. Visick.

    W Visick & Sons Ltd, Devoran. Seen in St Ives. Inscription on raised band.

    Falmouth. Moss.

    Ernest H Moss, contractor, Falmouth. Air tight inspection cover. Seen in Falmouth.

    Saint Just Holman.

    N Holman & Sons, meter, St Just.

    Saint Just Holman.

    N Holman & Sons Ltd. R, St Just.

    DORSET.
    Bournemouth. Dibben.

    William Dibben [?] & Sons Ltd, Bournemouth. Airtight inspection cover. Seen in Beaulieu.

    Bournemouth. Holt.

    H J Holt Ltd, Bournemouth & Southampton. Seen in Wareham.

    Bridport. Paragon.

    Paragon, Bridport. Seen in Lyme Regis.

    Bridport. Samson.

    R. R. Samson Bridport.

    Lyme Regis, Dorset. Caddy.

    W Caddy & Sons, Lyme Regis.

    Lyme Regis. Caddy.

    W Caddy & Sons, contractors, Lyme Regis.

    Poole. Needham.

    J Needham & Sons Ltd, Stockport. [On rim:] Borough of Poole.

    Puddletown. Spring Forge.

    Mfg by the Spring Forge Ltd, patent no. 741855 - 1953, Coombe Road, Puddletown, Dorset. Seen in Beaulieu. Inscription in lower half of cover.

    Puddletown. Spring Forge.

    Mfg by the Spring Forge Ltd, patent no. 741855 - 1953 erased, Coombe Road, Puddletown, Dorset. Seen in Frome. Inscription in top half of cover.

    Puddletown. Spring Forge.

    Mfg by the Spring Forge Ltd, [patent no. 741855 - 1953 erased], Coombe Road, Puddletown, Dorset. Seen in Stow. Inscription in centre of cover.

    Wareham. Marsh.

    A Marsh, builder Wareham.

    GLOUCESTERSHIRE.
    Bristol. Ashton & Green.

    Ashton & Green, London, Dublin & Bristol

    Bristol. Bristol Foundry Co.

    Bristol Fdy Co. Seen in Newlyn.

    Bristol. Bristol Water.

    Bristol Water, also seen in Wedmore, Somerset.

    Cheltenham. Costello & Kemple.

    Costello & Kemple Ltd, Grip-fix, Cheltenham. Seen in Stow-on-the-Wold.

    Cinderford. Cannop.

    Cannop Foundry Ltd, Cinderford. Seen in Wilton.

    SOMERSET.
    Bath. Burn.

    Burn Bros Bath. Seen in Exeter. Different alignment of text to bezels.

    Bath. Burn.

    Burn Bros, Bath. Seen in Cleeve.

    Bridgwater. Bale.

    Bridgwater Town Council. Bale Sons & Co, makers, Bridgwater.

    Bridgwater. Bridgwater Town Council.

    Bridgwater Town Council. Bale Sons & Co, makers, Bridgwater.

    Porlock. Cooksley.

    Cooksley & Son, Porlock.

    Taunton.

    [?]en & Son, [?]cin[?]ers, Taunton. Indistinct. Seen in Didcot.

    Taunton. Penny.

    T S Penny, Taunton. Seen in Porlock.

    Watchet. Gliddon.

    J Gliddon & Sons, founders, Williton & Watchet.

    Wells. Sheldon.

    A. Sheldon, Wells. An early style of cover.

    Williton. Gliddon.

    J Gliddon & Sons, founders, Williton & Watchet.

    Williton. Gliddon.

    J Gliddon & Sons, founders, Williton & Watchet.

    WILTSHIRE.
    Salisbury. Salisbury & Wilton RDC.

    Salisbury and Wilton RDC.

    Wilton Osdene.

    Osdene Development Ltd, Wilton.

    This page last updated 5 January 2017

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    SOUTH EAST ENGLAND.


    BERKSHIRE.
    Reading. Griffith.

    Griffith's self locking plate Railway Foundry, Reading. Patent no. 2724 1888. Seen in Henley.

    Reading. Thames Water.

    Thames Water, Inter-Ax EN124, D400 N Stanton LTS. Seen in Redhill.

    Reading. Wilder.

    J Wilder, Reading.

    Sonning-on-Thames. Paddick.

    S Paddick & Sons Ltd, Sonning-on-Thames. Seen in Henley.

    Streatley. Smallbone.

    J. Smallbone & Sons, builders, Streatley, air tight inspection cover.

    BUCKINGHAMSHIRE.
    Aylesbury. Webster & Cannon.

    Webster & Cannon, sanitary engineers, Aylesbury. Air tight inspection cover, double sealed. Seen in Waddesdon.

    Gerrards Cross. Lovell.

    Y J Lovell & Son, contractors, Gerrards Cross. Seen in Chichester.

    HAMPSHIRE.
    Southampton. Dibben.

    William Dibben & Sons Ltd, Southampton, registered. British & AMR [?] standard. Seen in Beaulieu.

    Southampton. Dibben.

    Wm Dibben & Sons Ltd, Southampton. Seen in Hamble.

    Southampton. Dibben.

    Wm Dibben, Southampton. Seen in Winchester.

    Southampton. Holt.

    H J Holt Ltd, Bournemouth & Southampton. Seen in Wareham.

    Lymington. Lymington Borough Council.

    Borough of Lymington.

    Winchester. Jewell.

    P. C. Jewell City Foundry, Winchester.

    KENT.
    Ashford. Mather & Smith.

    Mather & Smith Ltd, Ashford, Kent

    Ashford. Mather & Smith.

    Mather & Smith Ltd, Ashford, Kent. Seen in Chichester

    Ashford. Mather & Smith.

    Mather & Smith Ltd, Ashford, Kent, SW [inverted]. Seen in Worthing.

    Ashford. Mather & Smith.

    Mather & Smith Ltd, Ashford, Kent. Seen in Worthing.

    Ashford. Mather & Smith.

    Mather & Smith Ltd, Ashford, Kent. Seen in Worthing.

    Lenham. Marley Extrusions.

    Marley Extrusions, Lenham Kent. Seen in Wells.

    Lenham. Marley Extrusions.

    Marley Extrusions, Lenham Kent, BS 497, grade C. Seen in Vindolanda.

    Maidstone. Elmore.

    Thos Elmore, builder, Maidstone. Seen in Rochester.

    Maidstone. Weeks.

    W Weeks & Son Ltd, Maidstone. -

    Rochester. Rochester Corporation.

    City of Rochester.

    Rochester. Rochester Corporation.

    City of Rochester. Different arrangement of bezels.

    Tonbridge. Seale & Austen.

    Borough of Reigate. Seale & Austen ironfounders Tonbridge.

    Tonbridge. Seale & Austen.

    Borough of Reigate, Seale & Austen Ltd founders Tonbridge. Seen in Redhill.

    OXFORDSHIRE.
    Oxford. Dean.

    Dean & Son, Oxford.

    Oxford. Symm.

    Symm & Co, Oxford, contractors.

    Crowmarsh. Wilder.

    W. Wilder & Sons, Crowmarsh. Seen in Didcot. Two lifting holes.

    Crowmarsh. Wilder.

    W. Wilder & Sons, Crowmarsh. Seen in Goring. One lifting hole.

    Crowmarsh. Wilder.

    W Wilder & Sons Ltd, Crowmarsh Oxon. WO.

    SURREY.
    Betchworth. Cummins.

    G. Cummins & Son, sanitary engineers, Betchworth. Seen in Reigate.

    Chertsey. Long Humphreys & Co

    Long Humphreys & Co Ltd, Chertsey, Surrey. Seen in Reigate.

    Dorking. Smyth.

    Smyth & Co, founders Dorking. Seen in Brockham.

    Guildford. Franks Harris.

    Franks Harris Bros Ltd, Guildford, surface water. Seen in Goring.

    Guildford. Franks Harris.

    Franks Harris Bros Ltd, Guildford, soil. Seen in Didcot.

    Hayle. Harvey.

    Harvey & Co Ltd, Hayle. Seen in St Ives.

    Reigate. Reigate Borough Council.

    Borough of Reigate. Seale & Austen ironfounders Tonbridge.

    Reigate. Seale & Austen.

    Borough of Reigate, Seale & Austen Ltd founders Tonbridge. Seen in Redhill.

    SUSSEX. In Sussex, despite its nearness to London, there is a good selection of the work of local foundries. This is perhaps an echo of the Wealden iron industry which was active since Roman times. The following ironfounders are listed in Kelly's 1915 county directory:
    Arundel. Penfold, James Ltd. Ford Road. Also Pulborough
    Burgess Hill. Hole, Ernest, Mill Road (advert)
    Chichester. Halstead & Sons Ltd., 81 & 82, East Street
    Chichester. Triggs Brothers, 174, Oving Road
    Horsham. Horsham Engineering Works (H.J. & E.W.S.Lintott), near Railway Station
    Hurst Green. Oakley, Albert
    Lewes. Every, John, Phoenix Iron Works
    Pulborough. Penfold, James Ltd. Also Arundel
    Rye. Jones, Edward Percy S. Rother Iron Works
    Worthing. Kimmins, Alfred H. & Co., Providence Terrace, Lyndhurst Road

    Sussex. Westbourne RDC.

    WRDC. A rural district council commissioned casting seen in Bosham.

    Brighton. Reed.

    C. G. Reed & Sons Ltd, Brighton. Seen in Haywards Heath.

    Brighton. Virgo.


    Chichester. Chichester Corporation.

    Chichester Corporation Water Meter.

    Chichester. Chichester Corporation.

    Chichester Corporation Water Meter.

    Chichester. Chichester Corporation.

    London, A.C. Woodrow & Co. City of Chichester sewer.

    Chichester. Rotary Club.

    Rotary Clubs of Chichester. Tree of goodwill 2000. Geoffrey Osborne Ltd. Chichester City Council. Peter Savage Nuneaton. EN124 C2510. LK0034.

    Haywards Heath. Finch.

    H Finch, builder, Haywards Heath.

    Horsham. Lintott.

    H. & E. Lintott Ltd, Sewer, Horsham. Seen in Chichester.

    Horsham. Lintott.

    H. & E. Lintott Ltd, Meter, Horsham. Seen in Worthing.

    Horsham. Lintott.

    H & E Linttott Ltd, Horsham, meter. Seen in Arundel.

    Horsham. Lintott.

    H & E Linttott Ltd, Horsham, meter. Seen in Exmouth.

    Lewes. Every.

    John Every (Lewes) Ltd, surface water. Seen in Croydon.

    Lewes. Every.

    John Every Lewes. Seen in Croydon.

    Lewes. Every.

    J. Every Lewes. Seen in Croydon.

    Lewes. Every.

    Every, Lewes. Seen in Brighton where there are many similar but uninscribed designs.

    Lewes. Phoenix Iron & Steel Works.

    E. S. E. Phoenix, Lewes, England. Seen in Haywards Heath.
    The Phoenix Iron and Steel Works also known as: The Phoenix Foundry, The Phoenix Ironworks, John Every Ltd and the East Sussex Engineering Company was central to the working lives of many Lewes families during its history. Established in 1832 in a small building at the bottom of North Street by John Every, the blast for the original furnace was provided by a horse driven fan. It grew into a modern prosperous business producing very high quality iron and steel work and closed in 1986.
    Worthing. Kimmins.

    A. Kimmins, W.T.C. Worthing.

    Worthing. Patching.

    E.T.Patching, Sanitary engineer, Worthing.

    Worthing. Sandell.

    Air tight inspection cover, Frank Sandell & Sons, Sanitary plumbers, Worthing.

    This page last updated 5 January 2017

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  • 01/05/17--13:27: England. 6: West Midlands
  • WEST MIDLANDS.


    HEREFORDSHIRE.
    Hereford.

    Uninscribed coal-hole seen in Hereford.

    Hereford. Cawless.

    T & H Cawless, Hereford.

    Ledbury. Smith.

    David Smith, builder, Ledbury.

    SHROPSHIRE.
    Dawley. Hulse.

    J. C. Hulse & Co. Ltd, Dawley, Wellington. Salop. Seen in Chichester.

    Dawley. Hulse.

    J C Hulse & Co Ltd, ironfounders, Dawley, Salop. Seen in Aberystwyth.

    Dawley. Hulse.

    J C Hulse & Co Ltd, ironfounders, Hinkshay Telford Salop. Seen in Hull.

    Dawley. Hulse.

    J C Hulse & Co Ltd, ironfounders, Hinkshay Telford Salop. Seen in Pockington.

    Dawley. Hulse.

    J C Hulse & Co Ltd, ironfounders, Hinkshay Telford Salop. Seen in Worthing.

    Ludlow. Cooper & Luck.

    Cooper & Luck, Ludlow, ca. 1850.

    Ludlow. Hodges.

    C.Hodges, Ludlow, 1846.

    STAFFORDSHIRE.
    Cradley Heath. Dudley & Dowell.

    Dudley & Dowell Ltd, Cradley Heath, Staffs. Seen in Lympstone.

    Cradley Heath. Dudley & Dowell.

    Dudley & Dowell Ltd, Cradley Heath, Staffs. Seen in Lympstone.

    Cradley Heath. Dudley & Dowell.

    Dudley & Dowell Ltd, Cradley Heath, Staffs. Seen in Otterton.

    Lichfield. Tuke & Bell.

    Tuke & Bell Ltd, Lichfield, tripodic cover. Seen in Charmouth.

    West Bromwich. Glynwed Brickhouse.

    Glynwed Brickhouse, water. 8050. Ductile. Seen in Taunton.
    Brickhouse Foundry originated in 1858 and became a well-known manufacturer of Drainage Castings. In 1944 the company was acquired by Mr Ralph Godfrey who, over a period of the following 4-5 years transformed the company. Apart from producing just the British Standard patterns of Manhole Covers and Frames, the company also introduced an extended range of their own very popular designs, both in cast iron and mild steel. Brickhouse Foundry was closed in 1984 but reopened before the group was taken over by Glynwed in 1986. Glynwed sold the group on in 1997 and the Southampton Foundry was closed by the new owners in 1998 with Brickhouse foundry being closed in 1999 and demolished in 2004.
    WARWICKSHIRE.
    Birmingham. Dudley & Dowell.

    Dudley & Dowell ironfounders, Blackheath B'ham. Notice. BP. Care must be taken always to keep this pit dry. Seen in Dungarvan.

    Birmingham. Farrer.

    W E Farrer Ltd Birmingham

    Coventry. Coventry Corporation.

    Coventry Corporation. Seen in Aberaeron.

    Nuneaton. Savage.

    Peter Savage. KM45942. EN124 B125 450x450 s/seal, ductile KD32-40/39 13 05 10. Seen in Andover, Courtesy David Swindell.

    Nuneaton. Savage.

    Savage, Nuneaton. Seen in Shaldon.

    WORCESTERSHIRE.
    Dudley. Dudley. One of the most widely distributed ranges of manhole covers in England bears the name of Thomas Dudley Ltd,of Dudley, West Midlands. Established in 1920, this firm specialises in manufacturing iron castings to customer specifications in its privately owned fully mechanised foundry which operates six automated moulding lines. In 2007 their ‘Dauntless’ range of construction and plumbing industry iron castings was the largest in the UK. It is still a family firm. In 2007 the chairman was H.J.T.Dudley and one of the managing directors was M.J.Dudley. Website: www.thomasdudley.co.uk.
    Dudley. Dudley.

    Thomas Dudley Ltd, Dudley, seen in Exeter

    Dudley. Dudley.

    Thomas Dudley Ltd.[of Dudley], Seen in Exeter.

    Dudley. Dudley.

    Thomas Dudley Ltd, FH, Dudley, seen in Exeter.

    Warley, Worcestershire. Dudley & Dowell.

    Dudley & Dowell Ltd, Warley, Worcs. Seen in Newton Ferrers.

    Worcester. Hardy & Padmore.

    Hardy & Padmore Ltd, Worcester. Seen in Tiverton.

    This page last updated 5 January 2017

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    NORTH EAST ENGLAND.


    DURHAM COUNTY.
    Barnard Castle. Grove.

    Grove Works, Barnard Castle

    Barnard Castle. Smith.

    W Smith & Sons, Barnard Castle. Seen in Pocklington.

    Blaydon on Tyne. Hyslop.

    J Hyslop & Co Ltd, Pioneer Foundry, Blaydon on Tyne. Seen in Ambleside.

    Blaydon on Tyne. Hyslop.

    J Hyslop & Co Ltd, Blaydon on Tyne. Meter. NGWC [at four corners]. Seen on Lindisfarne

    Blaydon on Tyne. Hyslop.

    J Hyslop & Co Ltd, Pioneer Foundry, Blaydon on Tyne. Seen on Lindisfarne. Different alignment of text with bezels.

    Sunderland. Jennings.

    Jennings, Sunderland, meter, [in corners:] N G W C. Seen in Lindisfarne.

    NORTHUMBERLAND.
    Berwick. Berwick Sanitary Authority.

    Berwick Sanitary Authority.

    Berwick. Elder.

    Wm Elder & Sons Ltd, Berwick. Seen on Lindisfarne.

    YORKSHIRE.
    Bedale. Mattison.

    Mattison, Bedale Yorks, 2. Seen in Malton.

    Dewsbury. Clay Henriques & Co.

    Clay Henriques & Co Ltd, Dewsbury. Seen in Ledbury. One lifting hole, no vent holes.

    Dewsbury. Clay Henriques & Co.

    Clay Henriques & Co Ltd, Dewsbury. Seen in Sidmouth. One tifting hole, twelve vent holes.

    Doncaster. Misterton Castings.

    Misterton Castings Ltd, nr Doncaster. Grade B. BS 497. Seen in Armagh.

    Doncaster. Osmadrain.

    Osmadrain, rodding point. BS 497, grade B. Seen in Staveley. Produced by Wavin of Doncaster.

    Ferrybridge. Model Foundry.

    The Model Foundry, Ferrybridge. BS 497-52

    Ferrybridge. Model Foundry.

    Model Foundry, Ferrybridge.

    Ferrybridge. Model Foundry.

    The Model Foundry, Ferrybridge. Seen in Pocklington. No mention of BS 497.

    Gomersal. Heywood & Porteous.

    Heywood & Porteous Ltd, Gomersal nr Leeds. Seen in Totnes.

    Hull. Gibson.

    W A Gibson, North Walls Hull.

    Hull. Hull Corporation.

    H C [Hull Corporation].

    Knottingley. Model Foundry.

    The Model Foundry Co Ltd. BSS 497 52. Seen in Portishead.
    The Model Foundry Co. Ltd., Pontefract Road, Knottingley, which for over 40 years made iron castings for road works, and at one time made ship’s castings in iron, closed in 1968 due to financial difficulties.
    Pocklington. Richardson.

    Richardson, Pocklington.

    Rotherham. Guest & Chrimes.

    Guest & Chrimes, Water, Rotherham, seen at Exeter, Devon.

    Scarborough. Pickup.

    H. Pickup Ltd, type No 9 A, Lockanlift, pat no 13201/25, Scarborough. [around lifting points:] Lift safe lock.

    Scarborough. Pickup.

    H. Pickup Ltd, type No 9 A, Lockanlift, Scarborough. [around lifting points:] Lift safe lock.

    Scarborough. Pickup.

    H. Pickup Ltd, type N, Lockanlift, pat no 257318, Scarborough. [around lifting points:] Lift safe lock. Seen in Salcombe.

    Sheffield. Charlton Ironworks.

    Charlton Ironworks Ltd, Sheffield. Seen in Hessle.

    Sheffield. Charlton Ironworks.

    Charlton Ironworks Ltd, Sheffield. Seen in Lancaster. Nonequilateral hexagon.

    Skipton. Varley.

    Varley, Skipton, 3B.

    Thornton-le-Dale. Charles.

    J Charles & Son, builders, Thornton-le-Dale.

    York Adams.

    Adams Ltd, York. Seen at Benson, Oxfordshire.

    York. Adams Hydraulics.

    Adams Hydraulics Ltd, York.

    York. Adams Hydraulics.

    Adams Hydraulics Ltd, patent conical cover, York & London. Seen in Budleigh Salterton.

    York. Adams.

    Adams, pat, York. Seen in Budleigh Salterton.

    York. Adams

    Adams Hydraulics Ltd. Patent Conical Cover, York& London

    York. Adams

    Adams Pat. York

    York. Dove.

    W. Dove & Sons, makers, York

    York. Dove.

    W Dove & Sons makers York.

    York. Foster.

    H. Foster & Sons Ltd, Castle Mills Bridge, York. Seen in Beverely.

    York. Kirk.

    C.W. Kirk Iron founder, York

    York. Kirk.

    G W Kirk iron founder, York.

    York. Kirk.

    G W Kirk Iron & Brass Founder, York. Seen in Lynton

    This post last updated 5 January 2017

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    NORTH WEST ENGLAND.


    CHESHIRE.
    Stockport. Needham.

    Needham, Stockport. Seen in Newton Ferrers, Devon.

    Stockport. Needham.

    J Needham & Sons Ltd, Stockport. [On rim:] Borough of Poole.

    Stockport. Needham.

    Self hinging, non-rocking, Needham Stockport. Seen in Beverely.

    Stockport. Needham.

    Needham, Stockport. Seen in Rayleigh.

    CUMBERLAND.
    Carlisle. Clarke.

    Daniel Clarke Carlisle. Seen in Weatherall.

    Carlisle. White.

    White Bros, Carlisle. Seen in Silloth. Square.

    Carlisle. White.

    White Bros Ltd, Carlisle. Seen in Weatherall. Nonequilateral hexagon.

    Carlisle. White.

    White Bros, Carlisle. Seen in Weatherall. Circular.

    Carlisle. White.

    White Bros (Iron[f]ndrs) Ltd, Carlisle. Seen in Weatherall.

    Keswick. Cowperthwaite.

    W C Cowperthwaite & Son, Keswick.

    LANCASHIRE.
    Eccles. Eccles UK Foundries.

    Eccles UK Foundries Fe Ltd F2. EN 124 D400 Ductile. AV [deleted - air vent?]. GBV 14187. Seen in Didcot.

    Eccles.

    Eccles UK Foundries Fe Ltd F2. EN 124 D400 Ductile

    Eccles. Eyres.

    J&S Eyres Ltd, patent, non-rocking. Seen in Frome.
    Grace's guide to British Industrial History, accessed December 2016: J and S Eyres of Miles Platting, Manchester, makers of grids and manhole covers. 1897 Company founded. 1911 Private company. 1961 Drop forgers and ironfounders.
    Liverpool. Deacon Meter Palatine Engineering Co.

    Deacon Meter Palatine Engineering Co Ltd, Liverpool, No 100. Seen in Shaldon.

    Liverpool. Palatine

    Deacon Meter. Palatine Engineering Co. Ltd, Liverpool. No. 100

    Manchester. Eyres.

    J&S Eyres Ltd, non-rocking, Manchester. Seen in Kendal.

    Manchester. Knowsley Cast Metal Co.

    Knowsley Cast Metal Co Ltd, F H, Manchester. Seen in Staveley.

    Preston. Booth.

    The patent self locking coal grid, J Booth Preston. Seen in Coniston.

    Ulverston. Warhurst.

    G Warhurst, Ulverston. Seen in Coniston.

    WESTMORLAND
    Bowness. Bo'ness Iron Co.

    Bo'ness Iron Company. Grade A ductile BS 497. Seen in Langholm and Lanark.

    Bowness. Bo'ness Iron Co.

    Bo-ness Iron Co Ltd. Seen in Meldon.
    Grace's guide to British Industrial History, accessed Dec 2016), Bo’ness Iron Co of Dock Foundry, Bo'ness. 1900 Established by James D Moir and Provost Stewart. Operated from Dock Foundry, 60-62 Union St, Bo’ness. The site was previously used by Bo’ness Pottery and by Bo’ness Foundry. 1937 General ironfounders. 1975 The company was taken over by Dorada Engineering Ltd.
    Kendal. Day.

    H H Day, iron founder, Kendal.

    Kendal. Gilkes.

    Gilkes, Kendal.

    Kendal. Kendal Water Works.

    Kendal Water Works, stop tap.

    Kendal. Rishtons.

    Rishtons Ltd, Kendal.

    Windermere. Pattinsons.

    Pattinsons (Windermere) Ltd, Beresford Road, Windermere.

    This page last updated 5 January 2017

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    EAST MIDLANDS. This posting also includes East Anglia as there is at present virtually no representation of this region.


    CAMBRIDGESHIRE.
    Yaxley. Clarksteel.

    Clarksteel, England, grade B. MB250. BS497.
    Clarksteel Holdings Ltd is based in Yaxley near Peterborough. Since 2016 it has been trading as Clark-Drain Ltd. Their website (accessed December 2016) states: Clark-Drain was formerly known as Clarksteel Ltd. We were founded in 1963 by Francis Clark and his wife Dorothy who were looking to buy a manhole cover. At that time they were quoted a 12 to 18 month delivery time! So instead of waiting, they set about making a cover by themselves. In fact, that first cover set new industry standards as it was made from steel rather than the usual cast iron. Sadly, Francis passed away in 1998 and Dorothy in 2014, but family members continue to play key roles in the business.
    DERBYSHIRE.
    New Mills.Longson.

    J Longson & Son, New Mills.

    Whaley Bridge. Mulcaster.

    Wm Mulcaster, P. V. contractor, Haslington. Shallcross Foundry, Whaley Bridge. Seen in New Mills.

    Whaley Bridge. Shallcross Foundry.

    Shallcross Foundry, Whaley Bridge. Seen in New Mills.

    LINCOLNSHIRE.
    Lincoln. Duckering.

    "Duckering Lincoln.
    Established by Richard Duckering in 1845, the company prospered and moved in the 1850s to a site on Waterside North, stretching up to St Rumbold Street and west of Brook Street. Charles Duckering took over the operation of his father, Richard's iron foundry in 1870. Under his leadership the business expanded into the manufacture of farm implements and corn grinding machines. The foundry was on land between Waterside North and St Rumbold Street. The business finally closed in 1961, but lamp posts, drain grates and manhole covers made by Duckerings can still be seen all over Lincoln. The site is now occupied by the YMCA and a car park. "
    Scunthorpe. Scunthorpe Foundry Co.

    Scunthorpe Foundry Co Ltd.

    Nottingham. Crosta.

    James Crosta San Eng Co Ltd, Nottingham. Ames patent, no 14898 of 1909. Seen in Redhill.


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  • 05/31/17--00:41: Spain: Asturias
  • Candas.


    Ayuntamiento de Candas. Saneamiento. La Maruca.
    Fundicion La Maruca is locted in Avíles.

    Candas.

    Saneamiento La Maruca Ayto. Candas. Año 1969.

    Candas.

    Saneamiento Candas. Aguas negras. F.Guillerno [unclear]

    Cudillero.

    Ayuntamiento de Cudillero, saneamiento.
    With ship emblem of the town.

    Cudillero.

    Ayuntamiento de Cudillero. Alumbrado. 2000. Infiesta.
    A street lighting manhole cover, dated and with indication of foundry.

    Gijon. La Calzada.

    Talleres La Calzada Gijon. Telf 321837.
    Talleres La Calzada are mentioned in "Gijón, verano del año 1904 : grandes fiestas desde el 15 de julio al 15 septiembre" but this cover is more recent. Seen in Covadonga.
    Gijon. Loredo.

    Saneamiento. F. Loredo.
    Seen in Arenas de Cabrales. Fundicion Loredo Torres Sl was founded in 1991.

    Gijon. Nueva.

    Servicios Hidraulicos del Norte de España. Año 1960. La Nueva S. A. Gijon.
    Seen in Arenas de Cabrales.

    Gijon.

    Empresa Municipal de Aguas - Gijon. Uso exclusivo bomberos.
    Hydrant for the exculsive use of firefighters.

    Gijon.

    Ayunamiento de Gijon. Saneamiento.
    The figure represented in the shield beneath the crown is Pelayo, the Visigothic king of Asturias who began the reconquest of Spain from the Moors in 718 at the battle of Covadonga.

    Gijon.

    Saneamiento Gijon año 1929. Aguas negras.

    Llanes. Loreda.

    Saneamiento. F. Loreda.
    Seen in Llanes.

    Llanes. Nava.

    Red Saneamiento Llanes. El Caleyo. Fundiciones Nava SL, Leon.

    Llanes. Nueva.

    Ayuntamiento de Llanes, año 1961. Aguas potables. La Nueva S. A., Gijon.

    Oviedo. Walker.

    Autoceserios Harry Walker S. A.
    In 1914 Harry Walker of English origin and closely related to the American automobile world installed at 86 Balmes Street in Barcelona a small shop for spare parts and accessories for cars. The business grew to cover much of Spain and still survives in 2017 with its headquarters in Getafe Madrid.

    Oviedo.

    Ayuntamiento Oviedo. Aguas

    Oviedo.

    el Caleyo [emblem of Oviedo, possible inscription at base indistinct]

    Oviedo.

    Ayto de Oviedo. Saneamiento


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  • 05/31/17--00:50: Spain: Cantabria
  • Cantabria.


    Comision provincial de Servicios Tecnicos. Alcantarillado. CHNE 1971.

    Liebaña.

    Goberno de Cantabria. Saniemiento Liebaña 2003.
    Seen in Potes.

    Maliaño Varona.

    Saneamiento. F. Varona, Maliaño. Año 1993.
    Seen in Castro Urdiales.

    San Vicente de la Barquera. Varona.

    Ayuntiamiento de San Vicente de la Barquera. Sameamiento 1991 F. Varona.

    San Vicente de la Barquera.

    Comision provincial de Servicios Tecnicos. Alcantarillado. CHNE 1972.

    San Vicente de la Barquera.

    Diputacion Provincial. Alcantarillado. Año 1976.

    Santander. Benito.

    Ayuntamiento de Santander. Aguas. Alcantarillado, 2002. Fundicio ductil Benito.

    Santander. Fernandez.

    Angel Fernandez, Santander.

    Santander.

    Alcantarillado. [arms of Santander]

    Santander.

    SM de Aguas, Santander. 1989.

    Santander.

    Cie. Gle. des conduites d'eau, Liege. Aguas de Santander 1883.

    Santander.

    Regiones Devastadas. Santander. 1946.
    Seen in Potes. El Servicio Nacional de Regiones Devastadas y Reparaciones (SNRDR) was an organisation set up in 1938 by the dictatorship of General Franco to reconstruct nationalist areas that had been damaged during the Civil War. Potes was one of the areas in Cantabria that benefitted from this organisation, whose regional office was based in Santander.

    Santillana del Mar.

    Gobierno de Cantabria. Abastecimiento. Brio TM.

    Santillana del Mar.

    Alcantarillado. B. Martinez talleres de fundicion, Maliaño.

    Torrelavega.

    Ayuntamiento Torrelavega.


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  • 05/31/17--00:50: Spain: Castille
  • Aranda de Duero. Abad


    Tossa de Mar. Saneamiento. Fundiciones Abad, Aranda de Duero.

    Burgos.

    Ayuntamiento de Burgos, Alcantarillado. Fundiciones Abad.

    Burgos.

    Excmo Ayuntamiento Burgos. Alccantarillado año 1985.

    Burgos.

    Fundicion Colomer-Sabadell, San Fernando.

    Burgos.

    SICE. Sociedad Ibérica de Construcciones Eléctricas - not a water-related manhole cover.

    Logroño.

    Ayuntamiento de Logroño. Saneamiento. Fundiciones Elias, Logroño CE.

    Logroño.

    Fundicion Casa Elias S. A. Logroño. CE.
    Seen in Logroño.

    Medina de Rioseco. Fernandez.

    Exmo. Ayuntamiento La Guardia. Alcantarillado. Fernandez Rioseco.

    Medina de Rioseco. Moran.

    "F. Moran. M. de Rioseco.
    Seen in Caniza. This advertising poster of the family business Morán foundries appears in the guide-yearbook Valladolid and its province of 1927, we all remember hearing the boom years of the industrial Rioseco, when flour mills and foundries made Rioseco the perfect place to reconcile family life and work. Over the years the name of San Juan street changed and in later posters we see it reflected with Calvo Sotelo 23 where the offices would be placed posteriorly and passing the workshop to the broom street where today we find the little The family business that remains, (seems to be if this crisis allows us and if the population of Rioseco demands the land will be occupied by homes in the near future since the land belongs to a construction company). This advertising poster belongs to the year 50 and in it no longer presents the image of a large company"

    Ponferrada.

    Fundiciones Boveda, Ponferrada. Seen in Arenas de Cabrales

    Salamanca.

    Salamanca 1980. Distribucion. Fundiciones Nava SL ' EON.

    Salamanca.

    Salamance. Bomberos.

    Salamanca.

    Salamanca. Distribucion.

    Salamanca.

    Saneamiento de Salamanca 1942. Moneo [remainder indecipherable]

    Salamanca.

    Abastecimiento Aguas Salamanca 1914.

    Salamanca.

    Fundicion Moneo Hijo - S. A. Salamanca.

    Segovia.

    M. O. P. U. INUR abastecimiento. Poligono Nueva, Segovia.

    Segovia.

    Segovia. F. Pastor, Segovia.

    Segovia.

    Ayto Segovia. Abastecimiento.

    Segovia.

    Casa Barrero Segovia. Calefaccion Quenadores.

    Segovia.

    Ayto Segovia ductil. Fundicion J. Lopez Iniesta.


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  • 05/31/17--00:54: Spain: Catalunya
  • Barcelona.


    Fundicion Ductil Benito.

    Barcelona.

    Fundicion Ductil Benito

    Barcelona.

    Sdad Gral Aguas de Barcelona.

    Barcelona.

    Fundicion Fabregas Igualda Clavegueram. Barcelona.

    Barcelona.

    Ajunament de Barcelona en receixement Casa Oliveras 1885 2003 als seus anys de servei a la ciutat.

    Blanes.

    Red de Saneamiento, Blanes.

    Esterri d'Àneu.

    Esterri d'Aneu. Foneria Gelonch Lleida. Aigues potables.
    Seen in Ribiera de Cardos.

    Girona.

    Puigmarti Gerona.
    Seen in Tossa.

    Igualada Igualada is the home of the Fundicion ductil Fabregas, a foundry with 50-100 employees with a turn-over in excess of $100 million world-wide.
    Igualada

    Fundicion ductil Fabregas Igualda SA. Seen in Sighisoara, Romania

    Lleida. Roc Gelonch.

    Foneria Gelonch Lleida. Clavegueres.
    Seen in Ribiera de Cardos.

    Llivia.

    Clevegueres-Llivia 1979. Bautista Zaragoza.
    Seen in Llivia.

    Llivia.

    Municipi Llivia. Teysseyre, Albi.
    Seen in Llivia.

    Lloret.

    Lloret. Clavegueres.
    Seen in Lloret de Mar.

    Olot.

    Materials Domenjo S. A. Fundiciones Olotenses S. A.
    Seen in Llivia.

    Olot.

    Ayuntiament de Olot. Saneamiento. Gasco S. A,

    Ribera de Cardós

    Ribera de Cardos. Alcantarillado.

    Tossa de Mar.

    Tossa de Mar. Saneamiento. Fundiciones Abad, Aranda de Duero.

    Vic.

    Ayuntamiento Vich 1962.

    Vic.

    Ajuntiament de Vic Clavegueres


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  • 05/31/17--00:59: Spain: Extramadura
  • Caceres.


    Compania de Aguas de Caceres. Aurrer Bilbao

    Caceres.

    Izard Bejar 1.
    The foundry of Izard went into liquidation in Bejar in 2017.

    Caceres.

    Red Saneamiento Caceres. Metalurgica del Tormes S. A. Salamanca.

    Caceres.

    Ayunamiento Cacares. Aguas. Ramirez Merida.

    Caceres.

    Comercial Ferretera del Oeste. Caceres.

    Caceres.

    Ayuntamiento de Caceres. Saneamiento. Talleres Acero Merida.

    Guadalupe.

    Ay. De Guadalupe. Alcantarillado.

    Merida. Ramirez.

    Ayuniamiento de Merida. Saneamineto. M. Ramirez, Merida. Emerita Augusta.

    Merida.

    Fundicion Ramirez Merida.

    Merida.

    Ayuntamiento de Merida. Abastecimiento. Registro D400.
    Has bridge logo of Pont-à-Mousson, France.

    Merida.

    Ayuniamiento de Merida. Saneamineto. Emerita Augusta.

    Merida.

    Boca de riego.
    An attractive early design seen in Merida.

    Trujillo.

    Saneamiento.Ayuntamiento Trujillo. Ramirez Merida.


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  • 05/31/17--01:00: Spain: Galicia
  • Galicia.


    Saneamiento. Galicia Ductil. Comercial - Silva.
    With outline map. Seen in various locations in Galicia. Fundiciones Silva are based in A Coruña and Santiago de Compostella.

    Baiona.

    Alcantallirado de Bayona. Fundicion Rey Villagarcia.

    Cambados.

    San Jurjo [indistinct] Vigo.
    Seen in Cambados.

    Coruña.

    Saneamiento. La Coruña. Cofundo

    Coruña.

    Aguas de La Coruña. Año 1906.

    Coruña.

    La Coruña. Rexel. Saneamiento. PAM D400 EN124.

    Coruña.

    "Mo. De la Vivienda Poligon Zalaeta. GU. Alacantarillado Unitario. Solorzano.
    Manuel Solórzano Ibáñez started one of the most famous metallurgical dynasties of Coruña. He had settled in the sixties in A Coruña and in 1864 he established his iron foundry business in the neighborhood of Santa Lucía. The business venture went well and in 1873 obtained a contract to place columns, stands and lanterns for lighting with oil at various points in the city of A Coruña. Upon his death, in 1895, his widow and children formed a society based on the factory. Competition had grown and this required more professional training, but in 1923 their children formed a private civil society called Hijos de Solórzano. In 1938, the company reconstituted itself as a limited partnership, and although this made its growth slower, it managed to reach the third generation. With the arrival of the fourth generation came the professionalization of the management of the company, so that the foundry remained in place despite the Civil War but the crisis of the 70s and the competition of the Asian countries put an end to this century-old company. "

    Coruña.

    Saneamiento. La Coruña. F. Silva.

    Coruña.

    Mo. De la Vivienda Poligon Zalaeta. GU. Alacantarillado negras.
    A foul water manhole cover for the Poligon Zalaeta district of A Coruña.

    Dena.

    Prefabricados Dena.
    Seen in Combarro. Address in 2017: Rúa Galicia, 24 / 36967, Dena (Pontevedra).

    Guitaraz.

    Saneamiento. Comercial Silva Guitaraz.
    Seen in Galicia.Foundry not traced.

    La Caniza.

    Ayto. La Caniza 1967. Alcantarillado.

    Lugo.

    Abastecimiento. Fundiciones Pardo. EN524 D400.

    Mondoñedo.

    Saneamiento. Galicia.
    With outline map. Seen in Mondoñedo.

    Mondoñedo.

    Fundiciones Solva. UNE EN-124 D-400.
    Seen in Mondoñedo.

    Mondoñedo.

    Ayunto. de Mondoñedo 1928. Saneamiento.

    Mondoñedo.

    Saneamiento Mondoñedo. Solorzano.

    Poio.

    Concello de Poio. Saneamiento. Fundiciones Rey.
    Seen in Combarro.

    Pontevedra.

    Ferreteria Silva.Pontevedra. Talleres Dieguez la Baneza.

    Pontevedra.

    Alcantarillado de Pontevedra. Registro no. 331.

    Pontevedra.

    Pontevedra. Alcantarillado. F. Fernandez MD Rioseco.

    Ribadeo.

    Aguas Ribadeo. Galicia.
    With outline map of Galicia.

    Ribadeo.

    Alcantarillado. Ribadeo. Talleres Pardo.
    With arms of Ribadeo.

    Santiago de Compostella.

    Santiago. Camara no. 21. Saniurgo Vigo

    Santiago de Compostella.

    Concello Santiago. Saneamiento.

    Tuy.

    Fundiciones Rey Villagarcia.
    Seen in Baiona. Fundiciones Rey was established in 1944. With 48 workers in 2016 its foundry focuses mainly on the field of naval and industrial smelting.


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    International Manhole Cover Museum - Museo delle Ghise

    In Commachio in 2006 we were delighted to discover an exhibition of manhole covers in the town’s library and art gallery. Described as the International Manhole Museum, it displayed on special stands several dozen manholes from across Europe with a wide variety of designs. Returning a couple of years later we found that the Museum seemed to have vanished into thin air, but we have since discovered that the exhibition at Commachio was only temporary and the Museum is still alive and well in Ferrara.

    Exterior of the Museum in Comacchio, 2006
    International Manhole Museum display in Commachio, 2006
    The Museum is the brainchild of the irrepressible Stefano Bottoni. Born in Ferrara in 1949, he graduated at the Ferrara Institute of Art and later at the Academy of Arts of Bologna. In 1987 he dreamed up the Ferrara Buskers Festival, which became one of the most important buskers’ events in the world bringing together an international array of buskers, the Strassenmusikanten or Musicisti di strada. Starting in 1988 with thirty groups, by the 17th festival in 2005 the number of participants had increased tenfold, becoming one of the greatest and popular festivals in Italy with some 800,000 visitors.

    So Signor Bottoni is no stranger to grand and unusual ideas. He has been the artistic director of many other events in Ancona, Rome, Florence and elsewhere. In September 1998 he revealed to the world his latest idea. To quote from an article by Tommaso La Rocca, he aimed to follow his success with the buskers by "bringing to Ferrara other particular inhabitants of the same streets. They don’t sing, they don’t play and they don’t speak ... but someone has so much ennobled them as to call them “the souls of truth”, in the Italian film “Vacanze romane”, where the most ancient manhole cover in the world is remembered.

    The exhibition was launched on 18th September 2004 in Ferrara, displaying manholes from all over the world, objects that are not usually considered as an artistic product but can “unveil to us traditions, culture and history”. Stefano Bottoni is collecting them with the same enthusiasm with which he has been pursuing his buskers, pestering mayors and town councils, embassies, tourist boards, engineers, architects, the foundries that produce these “trampled objects” and even the “unique world manhole researcher of Chinese and Irish cities Chen Jia Lee”.

    Manhole from Krems in the International Manhole Cover Museum, Ferrara, 2010
    By 2004 he had collected about fifty specimens from Prague, Amsterdam, Athens, Zürich., Oslo, Wien, Oporto, Dublin, Shanghai, Helsinki, Sarajevo, Rome, Cracow, Havana … He arranged a series of itinerant exhibitions and events in many of the cities from where they have come from. His Big Dream: to give them “a place of honour in a big permanent museum” in Ferrara seems to have become reality in June 2010 when the Renaissance courtyard of the National Archaeological Museum presented rows of them, many inscribed with the names of the world’s cities, often with a heraldic blazon, lending dignity to an everyday object which serves the vital function of giving access to drains and sewers.
    Display in the International Manhole Cover Museum, Ferrara, 2010
    Even before its latest incarnation the collection had proved its worth. It encouraged us back in 2006 to collect manhole covers, not as tons of cast iron requiring massive storage space, but as digital images that could be shared on the internet. Signor Bottoni has his equally eccentric counterparts in the digital world, who record this special aspect of our heritage.

    Website: http://www.manholemuseum.it/ E-Mail: mailto:info@manholemuseum.it

    Poster for International Manhole Cover Museum