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  • 06/22/09--15:14: Portugal
  • Link to introductory page

    In comparison to Spain the manhole covers of Portugal are generally a meagre bunch. In many cases the covers feature only the initials CM (for Camara Municipal) followed by the initial letter of the place. This is true even for Lisbon. The name of the foundry is sometimes given. Pont-à-Musson has made some inroads here but more intersting are the names of early foreign foundries to be found in towns such as Porto.

    Braga
    Saneamento, C.M.B. Fundição Pachancho, Braga
    Saneamento, A Mecanica, Braga, CM
    Cascais
    Aguas de Cascais, Rexel, Esgotos.
    Lisbon
    CML, Esgotos, Fundição Crato
    Mafra
    CM Mafra, Pluvias, 2008
    Porto

    Perhaps the most interesting town in Portugal, the early manholes from Engand and Scotland reveal the port's long-standing trading links. The Polish manhole cover seen in the suburb of Gaia across the river is less easy to account for, perhaps a wrong delivery by the foundry at Pont-à-Mousson

    C.M.P., 3a Repartição-Arruamentos
    Fundicao de Masserellos, Porto. Seen in Braga
    Glenfield Ltd, Paris et Kilmarnock
    Hughes & Lancaster, London
    Aguas de Gaia EM, Rexel, Saneamento, PAM.
    Wodkan Zgierz, Korum, PAM
    CM Porto, Fundicao Aboinha, Aguas Pluvias
    Fausto, CMC, Porto. Seen in Caminha
    CIF, Porto. Seen in Valenca
    Sintra
    SMAS Sintra, Aguas, Fucoli
    Tomar
    F Tomarense, Tomar, SMAS Tomar, Esgotos

    Link to introductory page


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  • 09/23/09--09:05: Ireland
  • Link to introductory page

    Ireland has a wide variety of manhole covers, few of them very decorative, although many small water stop-valves have Celtic style designs, often with the word "uisce" (water, from which the English word whisky derives). Pont a Mousson has made few inroads here and Ireland is loyal to its main foundry, Cavanagh in Birr. However there are a number of English and Welsh suppliers, and, particularly in Ulster, foundries in Scotland, especially Kilmarnock just across the water.

    This page is under construction

    Bailieborough

    Bailieboro Foundry. Seen in Wexford
    Ballynahinch

    PKS Ballynahinch. Seen in Belfast
    Belfast

    Meter, Belfast Water Works

    Belfast Water Works, 4

    Belfast City Council, Garden of Remembrance

    Ulster Fondries, Belfast. Seen in Coleraine
    Birr

    Cavanagh Foundry, Birr

    The Cavanagh Foundry in Birr with the splendid strapline on its factory is the main supplier of manhole covers in southern Ireland, its products seen across the country, including items commissioned by local authorities whose names also appear on the covers. Products include a series of covers named after ferocious beasts: Tiger, Panther, Scorpion etc and also a square cover with Celtic designs.


    Cavanagh Foundry, Birr. Manhole covers awaiting delivery

    Cavanagh Scorpion. Seen upended in Stradbally

    Cavanagh. Decorative cover seen in Letterkenny and Cahir

    Cavanagh Foundry, Birr. Seen in Wexford

    J.Cavanagh & Sons Ltd, Birr, Beal tuile. Seen in Wexford
    Carlow

    T.Thompson & Son, Carlow. Seen in Dunlavin
    More covers to add

    Link to introductory page

    Copyright © Ian Maxted, 2009
    Page last updated 24 September 2009

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  • 11/13/09--05:06: Spain
  • Link to introductory page

    The manhole covers of Spain reflect the civic and historic pride of the nation, a pride which manifests itself in the coats of arms which adorn the facades of so many of the old mansions in historic towns throughout the country and in the memorials and inscriptions celebrating the institutions that have shaped its history. Emblems of the towns abound, the local authorities and the foundries are proudly named and designs are often dignified and elegant. Manholes are also quite frequently dated, as if the local authorities felt it worth while to record the progress of their activites in maintaining a good water and sewerage service.

    This page is still under construction

    Avila
    Excmo. Ayto. de Avila. Showing emblem of the city.
    Cudlillero
    Ayuntamiento de Cudillero, saneamiento. With ship emblem of the town.
    Igualada

    Igualda is the home of the Fundicion ductil Fabregas, a foundry with 50-100 employees with a turn-over in excess of $100 million world-wide.

    Fundicion ductil Fabregas Igualda SA. Seen in Sighisoara, Romania
    Ponferrada
    Fundiciones Boveda, Ponferrada. Seen in Arenas de Cabrales

    Copyright © Ian Maxted 2009. This page last updated 13 November 2009

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/13/10--03:44: France: Languedoc-Rousillon
  • Link to introductory page

    France: Languedoc-Rousillon

    AGDE
    Agde, eaux usées
    BEDARIEUX
    Bédarieux, Fonderie Sablier, eau. Seen in Lamalou
    Bédarieux, J. Sablier, fondeur. Seen in Sete
    BEZIERS
    Ville de Beziers, Fonderies Montpellieraines
    CARCASSONNE
    Meridia, Carcassonne
    Ville de Carcassonne
    Ville de Carcassonne
    MEZE
    Eau [arms of Mèze]
    Anonymous. Seen in Mèze
    NARBONNE
    Fonderie Loubic, Narbonne
    PERPIGNAN
    Bolzoms-freres, Perpignan. Seen in Collioure.
    Société Catalane, Perpignan
    La Societe catalane de travaux, Perpignan
    PEZENAS
    Fonderie Bascou, Pezenas
    Fonderies Bascou, Pezenas Herault. Seen in Beziers
    Fonderies Bascou, Pezenas Herault. Seen in Capestang
    SETE
    Ville de Sète, assainissement
    Ville de Sète, assainissement [with arms]
    Eaux, ville de Sète
    Ville de Sète, assainissement
    Fonderies & ateliers du Midi, Cetye

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/16/10--08:00: France: Midi Pyrénées
  • Link to introductory page

    France: Midi Pyrénées

    ALBI
    Millet & Rigal, Albi
    Fonderie Millet, Albi
    Fonderie Millet, Albi
    Teysseyre, Albi
    Teysseyre, Albi
    [Arms of Albi]
    CASTRES
    Bousquet & Azema, Castres

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/16/10--08:21: France: Aquitaine
  • Link to introductory page

    France: Aquitaine

    BAYONNE
    Ville de Bayonne
    BIARRITZ
    Safam fonderies de Mousserolles
    NAVARRENX
    Ville de Navarrenx
    PAU
    J.Artigau et fils, Pau, mecanique et fonderie

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/18/10--01:23: France: Paris
  • Link to introductory page
    France: Paris



    A.Durenne, Maître de Forges à Paris. Seen in Caen
    A.Durenne, Maître de Forges à Paris. Seen in Versailles. A variant of the same design with sixteen symbols in the central circle instead of twelve and smaller corner circles.
    Eaux de ville, Vve. Ch. Gibault, Paris, Breveté S.G.D.G.
    E.Millot, Cimentier hydro-volcanique, Paris. Seen in the stable block of the Château de Chaumont which was constructed in the 1880s.

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/19/10--15:15: France: Loire and Centre
  • Link to introductory page

    France: Loire and CentreAmboise
    Fonderie Mabille, Amboise
    Bleré
    Richard à Bleré. Seen in Loches A Richard, Bleré i. L. Seen in Pocé-sur Cisse
    Lucon
    Ville de Luçon, Egouts
    Le Mans
    Chappée, Le Mans 8
    Tours
    Guitard, Tours. Rubbing in exhibition in Tours, 2010 Rubbings of manholes in Tours, exhibition 2010 Fonderie de Portillon, Tours. Seen in Loches

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/30/10--03:33: France : Pont-à-Mousson
  • Link to introductory page
    See also pages for individual regions and towns in France.

    Pont-à-Mousson

    Many manhole covers in France, and increasingly in many other counties, bear the brand name PAM with its distinctive bridge trade mark. The new Princesshay development in Exeter installed some of their products in 2007. They are manufactured by Saint-Gobain PAM, a metallurgy company which is a branch of Saint-Gobain Canalisation. The birth of the enterprise was in 1854 when the discovery of iron ore deposits was made in Lorraine at Marbache, in Meurthe-et-Moselle. The factory at Pont-à-Mousson (hence the initials PAM) was founded in 1856 and the first cast-iron water-main was produced in 1866. During the 19th century the firm supplied many towns in France and Europe with iron water mains and in 1886 the creation of the Société Anonyme des Hauts-Fourneaux et Fonderies de Pont-à-Mousson reflected the main area of activity of the firm - cast ironwork. Activities spread to South America in 1937. In 1970, bringing together several industrial firms in France, Germany and Brazil, Pont-à-Mousson S.A. merged with the Compagnie de SAINT-GOBAIN. International development continued from the 1980s, spreading to Spain, to Great Britain, to Asia in 1997 and to South Africa in 1998. In 2006 Saint-Gobain Canalisation employed more than 9,000 persons world-wide, of which 2,850 were employed by Saint-Gobain-PAM. A visit to the town in 2007 ascertained that the firm had full order books for the next four years. Website: www.pamline.fr.

    The bridge at Pont-à-Mousson. The old bridge, which provided the inspiration for the firm's logo was destroyed in World War 2.
    The PAM-Gobion Foundry at Pont-à-Mousson. The trucks in the railway sidings contain products of the foundry.
    Pont a Mousson. An excellent early example, seen in Coutances, Manche. The town of Roscoff has numerous examples of this style of manhole cover, the strong design complementing admirably the heavy granite buildings of this Breton port.
    Pont-à-Mousson. Another early style design seen in Pont-à-Mousson.
    Pont-à-Mousson. Fonte ductile. A wave pattern forms one of the more distinctive designs of the PAM foundry. Seen in Pont-à-Mousson.

    A version of the wave design with arabic inscriptions, seen in Najac

    PAM InterAx. Seen in Newton Ferrers, Devon. A typical example of the style of cover to be found across Europe.

    PAM Rexel. Another widely seen design, this one spotted in Zurich
    Classe 250. An anonymous design seen in Roscoff.

    An anonymous design in the historic village of Minerve, showing how cobbles are fitted into the cast iron frame to blend in with the street surface.

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/30/10--05:08: Germany : Kulmbach
  • Link to introductory page

    The town of Kulmbach deserves its own page because of the range of manhole covers it has commissioned to commemorate various places and institutions with which the town is linked. They lend great interest to the streetscape without being obtrusive.

    Stadt Kulmbach. The town's own blazon. Lüneburg Rust Am goldenen Feld 24 KA Lugo Saalfeld Kilmarnock Schnelles Minensuchboot SM 343 Kulmbach der Bundesmarine Dammhäuser GMBH. Exclusiverstellung von individuellen Motiveschachtabdeckungen. D-88433 Schemmerhofen. Tel 07356/933200. This is an advertisment for the firm that manufactures bespoke manhole covers world-wide and supplied those for Kulmbach.

    Link to introductory page


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  • 07/30/10--06:46: Germany : Hansa Towns
  • Link to introductory page

    BREMEN
    Freie Hansestadt Bremen, Stadtentwasserung. Aguss/Begu.
    HAMBURG
    Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg. Kanal Guss Hamburg manhole cover with a Shanghai cover in a photographic exhibition in Hamburg in 2008. 100 Jahre 1894-1994 HEW Fernwärme für unsere Stade. A commemorative cover, probably commissioned from Dannhäuser GMBH, for a century of district heating in Hamburg.
    ROSTOCK
    Hansestadt Rostock. Buderus Guss und Armaturwerk Kaiserslauten.
    STRALSUND
    Hansestadt Stralsund. Kanal Guss. Begu.
    WISMAR
    Hansestadt Wismar. Buderus. Kanal Guss.

    Link to introductory page


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    Link to introductory page

    Brousseval, Haute Marne
    Brousseval, Hte. Marne. Seen at Deauville

    Brousseval, Hte. Marne. Seen at Caen
    Brousseval, Haute-Marne Brousseval, Haute-Marne
    Bussy, Haute Marne

    The foundry of Capitaine-Geny is responsible for a number of monuments, for example the casting of the Monument commémoratif du Siège de 1544 at Saint-Dizier.


    Capitain Geny & Cie, Bussy, Hte Marne. Seen in Vézelay
    Joinville
    M.H.M., Joinville. Seen in Mayenne.
    Societe Metallurgique Haute-Marnaise, Joinville, Haute-Marne. Seen in Caen
    Revin
    E-Henon, 08-Revin. Seen in Grez-sur-Loing.
    Sedan
    Ville de Sedan, branchement d'egout.
    Ville de Sedan, concession d'eau
    Troyes
    Ville de Troyes, service des egouts, Fonderie A. Durenne
    Usines et Acieries de Sambre et Meuse
    UASM, Acier. A cover from Usines et Acieries de Sambre et Meuse, a large foundry group located in northern France. Seen in Coutances.

    Link to introductory page


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    International Manhole Cover Museum - Museo delle Ghise

    In Commachio in 2006 we were delighted to discover an exhibition of manhole covers in the town’s library and art gallery. Described as the International Manhole Museum, it displayed on special stands several dozen manholes from across Europe with a wide variety of designs. Returning a couple of years later we found that the Museum seemed to have vanished into thin air, but we have since discovered that the exhibition at Commachio was only temporary and the Museum is still alive and well in Ferrara.

    Exterior of the Museum in Comacchio, 2006
    International Manhole Museum display in Commachio, 2006
    The Museum is the brainchild of the irrepressible Stefano Bottoni. Born in Ferrara in 1949, he graduated at the Ferrara Institute of Art and later at the Academy of Arts of Bologna. In 1987 he dreamed up the Ferrara Buskers Festival, which became one of the most important buskers’ events in the world bringing together an international array of buskers, the Strassenmusikanten or Musicisti di strada. Starting in 1988 with thirty groups, by the 17th festival in 2005 the number of participants had increased tenfold, becoming one of the greatest and popular festivals in Italy with some 800,000 visitors.

    So Signor Bottoni is no stranger to grand and unusual ideas. He has been the artistic director of many other events in Ancona, Rome, Florence and elsewhere. In September 1998 he revealed to the world his latest idea. To quote from an article by Tommaso La Rocca, he aimed to follow his success with the buskers by "bringing to Ferrara other particular inhabitants of the same streets. They don’t sing, they don’t play and they don’t speak ... but someone has so much ennobled them as to call them “the souls of truth”, in the Italian film “Vacanze romane”, where the most ancient manhole cover in the world is remembered.

    The exhibition was launched on 18th September 2004 in Ferrara, displaying manholes from all over the world, objects that are not usually considered as an artistic product but can “unveil to us traditions, culture and history”. Stefano Bottoni is collecting them with the same enthusiasm with which he has been pursuing his buskers, pestering mayors and town councils, embassies, tourist boards, engineers, architects, the foundries that produce these “trampled objects” and even the “unique world manhole researcher of Chinese and Irish cities Chen Jia Lee”.

    Manhole from Krems in the International Manhole Cover Museum, Ferrara, 2010
    By 2004 he had collected about fifty specimens from Prague, Amsterdam, Athens, Zürich., Oslo, Wien, Oporto, Dublin, Shanghai, Helsinki, Sarajevo, Rome, Cracow, Havana … He arranged a series of itinerant exhibitions and events in many of the cities from where they have come from. His Big Dream: to give them “a place of honour in a big permanent museum” in Ferrara seems to have become reality in June 2010 when the Renaissance courtyard of the National Archaeological Museum presented rows of them, many inscribed with the names of the world’s cities, often with a heraldic blazon, lending dignity to an everyday object which serves the vital function of giving access to drains and sewers.
    Display in the International Manhole Cover Museum, Ferrara, 2010
    Even before its latest incarnation the collection had proved its worth. It encouraged us back in 2006 to collect manhole covers, not as tons of cast iron requiring massive storage space, but as digital images that could be shared on the internet. Signor Bottoni has his equally eccentric counterparts in the digital world, who record this special aspect of our heritage.

    Website: http://www.manholemuseum.it/ E-Mail: mailto:info@manholemuseum.it

    Poster for International Manhole Cover Museum

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  • 11/11/10--08:56: Romania
  • Link to introductory page

    Romanian manholes are frequently corroded or worn, with any inscriptions that may once have been in the centre obliterated. Many are in any case anonymous, with few distinctive patterns to be found. Special designs for individual communities are rare. Older manholes can be found with German or Hungarian inscriptions, reflecting the political situation before 1920.

    Manholes in Romania frequently bear the inscription STAS 2308. This is the national standard for water supply and sewerage: covers and frames for manholes. The version most commonly cited is [19]81 but examples can also be seen for earlier versions of the standard in 1951, 1952 and later, a useful guide for dating.

    An anonymous example of the 1951 standard reference seen in Cluj-Napoca.
    ALBA IULIA
    Municipiul Alba Iulia. Fundicion Ductil Fabregas Igualada. The products of this Spanish company are widely found in Romania.
    BUZAU
    Grup Romet Buzau.
    Grup Romet, a holding company, manufactures products for water supply and sewage networks, filters and equipment for water treatment, tractors, agricultural machinery, fire extinguishers, machine tools and gas installations. It was founded 1 September 1928 by Iulius Horer as Metalurgica Factory and Foundry at 15, Brailei Road, the current site of S.C. Aromet S.A., the oldest industrial company in Buzau. On the Aromet structure was built the Grup Romet holding company, incorporating eight companies. In 2010 it was one of the biggest Romanian suppliers for the water industry with premises covering over 150,000 square metres and more than 800 employees.
    CLUJ-NAPOCA
    Kolozsvar sz. kir. varos vizmuve.
    This manhole, inscribed in Hungarian dates from before the Trianon Treaty of 1920 Kolozsvar varosi vizmuvek.
    The omission of the term kir[aly] dates this manhole a little later than the previous one.
    Uzinele de apa si canalizare, Cluj. An unusual example with an inverted letter J.
    Uzinele de apa si canalizare, Cluj. This time the J is not inverted.
    Coop-Metalo Lemn Cluj Stas 2308-52.
    Presumably a product of the communist era, the Cooperativa Metalo-Lemn (Metal and Wood Cooperative) is mentioned in a document no. 369 886 issued 15 March 1968.
    Turnatoria Metulul apa canal Cluj.
    Turnatoria Metalul S.R.L. was founded in 1992 and is located in Cluj-Napoca, Cluj county. With 167 employees in 2010 it manufactured a wide range of castings from ferrous and nonferrous materials.
    Apa canal CUC Cluj.
    Probably another product of Turnatoria Metalul S.R.L.
    GHEORGHENI
    Transmetal S.R.L. was registered in 1991 (Registry No. J19/430/1991) and is a company involved in the casting of iron
    HUNEDOARA
    SC Elis SA.
    Located in Hunedoara, str. Ecaterina Varga nr.3 in 2010, SC Elis SA manufactures cast iron and other metal products.
    IASI
    Turnomex SRL is a manufacturer of ferrous castings based in 2010 at Bulevardul. N.Iorga 5, Bl.C5, Sc.A, Ap.8, Iasi.
    LUGOJ
    Timisul Lugoj, STAS 2308 62. Seen in Timisoara.
    Timisul Lugoj, STAS 2308 62. A different design seen in Sighisoara.
    ORADEA
    SC Fonti PSR Oradea, STAS 2308 61. Seen in Timisoara.
    RAMNICU SARAT
    Founded in 1994, Tupremo SA is located in Ramnicu Sarat, Str. Balta Alba 60a, Buzau County. It produces a wide range of manhole covers, underground hydrant boxes, parts for agricultural machinery, products and ferrous materials. In 2010 it had 60 employees, mainly working for the Romanian market.
    SATU MARE
    Saturn S.A., established in 1950 in Satu Mare, is a large company specialised in metal processing and machinery production.
    SIBIU
    Canalisation Nagyszeben Hermannstadt, And. Rieger
    The use of Hungarian and German indicates a date prior to the Treaty of Trianon in 1920.
    Sibiu Hermannstadt 2007, Norinco
    The nomination of Sibiu as European City of Culture in 2007 resulted in a mass order of these distinctive manhole covers, a heraldic design extremely rare in Romania. Note that the text is in Romanian and German with the Hungarian name of Nagyszeben omitted, an interesting example of linguistic politics. The cover was made by Norinco, a French company founded in 1971, and was probably cast in Saint Crépin Ibouvillers, where Norfond, the group's new foundry was built in 1992.
    STAS 2308-62 I.J J.L Sibiu. Seen in Targu Mures.
    SIGHISOARA
    Sighisoara. STAS 2308-58. Seen in Sighisoara. The central inscription is shallow, badly worn and difficilt to decipher, typical of many manhole covers in Romania.
    TARGU-MURES
    The Triplast Company of Targu-Mures was set up in February 2002, and is the first producer in Romania of plastic products using rotomolding technology. This item was made for the company by Fundicion Ductil Fabregas of Igualada, Spain.
    TIMISOARA
    Timisoara Aquatim. Seen in Timisoara.
    UNLOCATED FOUNDRIES
    Flacara-PL, STAS 2308-81. Seen in Sinaia.

    Copyrighr © Ian Maxted 2010

    This page last revised 31 March 2012

    Link to introductory page


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  • 11/11/10--09:44: Switzerland
  • Link to introductory page

    Swiss manholes are for the most part very unimaginative, usually simply with a chequerboard pattern, sometimes with the name of the foundry inscribed. Common throughout the country are the products of the Von Roll foundry. There are relatively few obvious imports although Pont-à-Mousson has been spotted on occasion and also Buderus and other German foundries. Not a fruitful destination for the operculist.

    BERN
    Bern manholes often have bears on them
    Kanalisation. GE [with bear as symbol of Bern].
    Tiefbauamt Bern
    Giesserei Bern
    Keller & Co., Bern
    Alf. Marti, Bern. Seen in Thörishaus
    Von Roll Werk Bern
    Most Von Roll covers refer to Rondez, presumably the locality Les Rondez, near to Delémont where they have one of their main production centres.
    Emmenbrucke
    Rondez
    Von Roll, TT. Seen on top of Simplon Pass
    The firm of Von Roll Casting AG produces ductile and gray cast iron products, ductile cast-iron pipes and fittings with polymer coating, valves, hydrants and municipal castings such as gully grates, manhole covers and channel gratings. The production sites at Emmenbrücke and Rondez apply the moulding method "machine-moulded green sand casting"; at the production site Choindez, they produce pipes by means of centrifugation as well as fittings by hand moulding. Founded in 1803 by Karl Dürholz who planned as a representative of the Solothurn company of Felix Brunner to set up a smelting furnace in Matzendorf but became independent with his brother when they founded the Eisenwerke der Handelsgesellschaft der Gebrüder Dürholz. The firm takes its present name from Ludwig von Roll (1771–1839) who joined the company in 1809. In 1883 von Roll acquired the works in from the Société des Forges de Vallorbe et des Rondez which had gone into liquidation.
    Two further typical Von Roll covers
    STEFFISBURG
    K.Santschi, Steffisburg. Seen in Bern.
    UNLOCATED
    Eisenwerk Klus. Seen in Bern, perhaps a local foundry connected with the Von Roll enterprise who opened a foundry at this location in 1810.

    Link to introductory page


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  • 01/18/11--12:35: England: coalhole covers
  • Link to introductory page

    In England the precursors of manhole covers are the coalhole covers. In the 19th century many buildings in larger towns had a coal hole in the pavement to allow the coal merchant to empty his sacks into the coal bunker, which was often in the cellar at the front of the house, without the need to enter the house. The hole was normally between 30 and 60 cm in diameter and was lined by a cast-iron ring and and covered by a cast-iron plate. This often advertised the name of the maker. One cover by J W Cunningham of 196 Blackfriars Road reportedly features a dog with his head in a pot, a sign is derived from the early trade sign for an ironmonger. They were normally given a raised pattern to prevent slipping and some include glass or concrete panels. Covers are more common from from the 1860s onwards but became redundant after the implementation of the Clean Air Acts. In the later 19th century Shepard Taylor was attracted by their varied designs and studied them, coining the word 'opercula' from the Latin for a cover. They have also inspired artists and even embroiderers and there have been several exhibitions of rubbings of coalhole covers. A recent limited edition book on the subject, with many illustrations, results from a project undertaken by the artist Maria Vlotides . It is called Pavement poetry and was published by Pedestrian Publishing in December 2010. See details on the Pedestrian Publishing website.

    An attractive anonymous design. Seen in Judd Street, London
    Safety plate improved. Seen in London.
    Carron. Seen in London and Brighton
    Durey, seen in London
    Two examples of simple designs without information on the place of production, which are quite widely found.
    London

    In London coalholes can be found in areas like Bloomsbury, Kensington, Pimlico or Paddington. Gordon Square and surrounding streets has a good selection but they are often removed during street improvements.

    Ashton & Green, London, Dublin & Bristol
    Frederick Bird & Co engineers & ironfounders, London W. Self fastening plate
    Brough, London. Seen in Ludlow
    J.W.Carpenter Ltd, 188-190 Earls Court Road, SW
    Clark, Hunt & Co, Shoreditch. Seen in Brighton
    Hayward Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough. Seen in Clifton. Hayward's products are widely found in London and the provinces. Apart from the patent self-locking plates, they are one of the few manufacturers to insert glass panels to provide light in cellars. Their large glazed gratings can be found in front of many Victorian buildings.
    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London. Seen in Bristol
    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London
    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London
    [Hayward] Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough, 1854. Seen in Henley.
    The Hope Foundry Co., 5, Upper Thames St., London E.C.
    Nettleton & Co., Sloane Square, London S.W. Seen in Eaton Place, London
    R.H. & J.Pearson's patent automatic action, Notting Hill Gate
    Pike & Co, 168 Ebury Street Pimlico. Seen in Grosvenor Gardens, London
    Pryle & Palmer, 40/41 Upper Thames Street
    A. Smellie, Westminster. Seen in Eaton Place, London.
    Clifton, Bristol
    Blank coal hole cover, 1820s? Seen in Paragon, Clifton, Bristol. Early square example.
    Decorative coalhole cover, 1840s? Seen in Clifton, Bristol. Compare the dated Ludlow example of a cellar trap-door below.
    C.Hodges, Ludlow, 1846. With similar floral decorative features to early coalhole covers in Clifton.
    Brighton
    T.W.Porter, Star Foundry, Brighton
    Lewes, Sussex
    Every Phoenix Ironworks, Lewes. Seen in Brighton
    J.Every, Lewes. Seen in Brighton

    Link to introductory page


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  • 01/20/11--14:26: England: London
  • Link to introductory page


    Ashton & Green, London, Dublin & Bristol

    Frederick Bird & Co engineers & ironfounders, London W. Self fastening plate

    Frederick Bird & Co West Drayton near London, engineers. Seen in Weymouth.

    Brough, London. Seen in Ludlow

    Burn Bros, London. Seen in Brighton

    J.W.Carpenter Ltd, 188-190 Earls Court Road, SW

    Clark, Hunt & Co, Shoreditch. Seen in Brighton

    Doulton & Co. Ltd, works London & Paisley. Seen in Didcot.

    A. Emanuel & Sons Ltd No. patent 11762 air tight manhole, George Street, Manchester Square. Seen in Devizes

    Ham Baker & Co Ltd, Westminster S.W. Fire hydrant

    Ham Baker &Co. Ltd, Westminster S.W. Fire hydrant. Seen in Totnes.

    Ham Baker & Co. Ltd, Westminster S.W. Keymac

    T.W.Harmsloe [?], Westminster, MPd [?] double joint manhole. Seen in Henley. Inscription unclear.

    Hayward Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough. Seen in Clifton. Hayward's products are widely found in London and the provinces. Apart from the patent self-locking plates, they are one of the few manufacturers to insert glass panels to provide light in cellars. Their large glazed gratings can be found in front of many Victorian buildings.

    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London. Seen in Bristol

    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London

    Hayward's patent self locking, Borough, London

    [Hayward] Brothers, 187 & 189 Union Street, Borough, 1854. Seen in Henley.

    The Hope Foundry Co., 5, Upper Thames St., London E.C.

    Knowles, London. Seen in Pendeen, Cornwall.

    Nettleton & Co., Sloane Square, London S.W. Seen in Eaton Place, London

    Parkinson and Ward Cowan. Cowan branch, London, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Manchester & Sydney. Seen in Weymouth.

    R.H. & J.Pearson's patent automatic action, Notting Hill Gate

    Pike & Co, 168 Ebury Street Pimlico. Seen in Grosvenor Gardens, London

    Pryke & Palmer, 40/41 Upper Thames Street

    Pryke & Palmer, Upper Thames [Street]. Seen in Devizes

    A. Smellie, Westminster. Seen in Eaton Place, London.

    J. Stone & Co., Deptford, London S.E. Seen in Henley

    J.Stone & Co. Ltd, Deptford, London S.E. Seen in Croydon

    Winser & Co., Inspection cover, London S.W., Buckingham Palace Rd. Seen at Lyme Regis.

    Winser and Co. are not recorded in the 1882 Post Office London directory so were probably established after that date. Plumbing practice by J. Wright Clarke (London, New York: The Engineering and Building Record, 1888) states:
    WINSER & Co. are Patentees and Manufacturers of several approved Appliances, such as Channel Bends, Traps, Manhole Covers, &c,, &c., ot which particulars may be had on application. They are prepared to undertake and carry out work of any description, either in large or small jobs, at the lowest remunerative price. They are, however, neither able nor willing to compete with "skin plumbers," as they only put in good work and material. Sole Address : works:- Belgrave Buildings, SW. Winser & Co., 52, Buckingham Palace Road, London, S.W.


    The Leicestershire, Leicester and Rutland Record Office includes in the Records of Ellistown Colliery Co. Ltd. and Ellistown Brick, Pipe and Fireclay works and Estates Ltd:
    • DE4939/975/1-2 1893, 1894: Illustrated catalogues of Improved Sanitary Appliances, Winser & Co., Sanitary Engineers, London SW

    • DE4939/981 April 1897: Price list Joseph Cliff & Sons, Wortley, Leeds, manufacturers of Winser's channels, bends etc. for manholes
    Winser & Co. Ltd (sanitary & drainage goods of Buckingham Palace Road is recorded in a book advert in 1902. The Old Bailey Sessions Papers records for March 14th, 1902:
    FREDERICK SAWYER WINSER. I am a sanitary engineer, one of the firm of Winser & Co. These three cheques were stolen from me. I gave no authority to the prisoner to pass them, nor to anyone to sign them.
    British progress in municipal engineering a series of three lectures by William Henry Maxwell (London, A. Constable & co., Ltd. , 1904) records Winser & Co 52, Buckingham Palace Road, S.W. as a participant. The London Manual for 1907 by Robert Donald (London: Edward Lloyd, 1907) has an advertisement for their illustrated catalogue of improved sanitary appliances.
    Winser and Co. are recorded as sanitary engineers at Buckingham Palace Road in the 1915 Post Office London directory.
    A.C.Woodrow & Co., London. Seen in Wilton A.C.Woodrow & Co., engineers, London.
    Greater London boroughs Bromley, formerly in the county of Kent, boasts a long series of dated covers, three examples of which are given here. The design has varied little over the years, indeed the same mould seems to have been reused for long periods. The odd size of the final number 5 in 1925 is evidence of this.
    B.B.C. Bromley, 1905, Rd 407588. B.B.C. Bromley, 1925, Rd 407588. T.B.C. Bromley, 1954, Rd 407588. City of Westminster.
    Copyright © Ian Maxted, 2010
    This page last updated 31 August 2012

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  • 02/07/11--03:48: Belgium
  • Link to introductory page

    BRUGES
    J.De Jaeger, Bruges
    B[ruges] Drinkwaterleiding, Brugge STAD Brugge
    A de Clerck, Brugge
    BRUSSELS
    Bruxelles, distribution d'eau Deglume. Seen in Ypres
    GHENT
    Water, Stad Gent
    LIEGE
    Vennes. Liege. Cie Gle des Conduites d'Eau. Seen in Kavala, Greece
    VIRTON
    Distribution d'eau, province de Luxembourg. Seen in Virton
    YPRES
    Useines & fonderies De La Croyere. Seen in Ypres
    Ieper water. Seen in Ypres

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    Revised 20 Apr 2011

    0 0
  • 02/07/11--04:31: Austria
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    Gmund
    ABD Gmund
    Graz
    Graz. Exhibit by the International Manhole Museum
    Krems
    Stadt Krems, Knanlisation. A product of the Wallner & Neubert foundry.
    Linz
    Stadtgemeinde Linz, Kanal
    Malta
    Kanalisation, Malta
    Villach
    Karntner Masch-Fabriken, Villach
    Unlocated
    Wallner & Neubert. Seen in Grein, but widespread in Austria with covers specially produced for individual towns.

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    0 0
  • 04/19/11--08:46: Greece
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    Lack of familiarity with the Greek language has meant that the full range of manhole covers has not been tackled. There are undoubtedly many covers with inscriptions relating to the local municipality and founders' names also appear, often with their telephone numbers. Names are often abbreviated, sometimes to the first letter only, for example ΔΘ means D[imos] Th[essaloniki]. Dates also figure frequently. While there are some striking designs, there is not much to arouse the interest of the operculist and unfortunately most of the covers are of recent date. Covers have been arranged by the place in which they were seen rather than by the place of production.

    Agios Nikolaos, Chalkadiki
    Martha Chr. Kotsaridou
    Alexandroupoli
    DEYAA Xytirion A Spasos Til 650 398 Thes/Niki
    Xytirion Hellas 4XL Lagkada AB K Spasos Til 513338
    Athens
    Eydap 2007 Xytometal 2831628
    Dimos Athinaion 1985. Afoi Maniedaki Til 5575225
    Athinion Dimos 1932
    Corfu
    Nero
    Etos 1990
    55243. Elot en 124 D 400
    Ioannina
    Eydap 1985 Apsdinid T2468995
    Degai 1990
    Stigkas 0296 33892 Athan Egos 1989
    Eythap 1985 Aithinis T 2468995
    D.E.Y.A.I. 1998. A Pont-à-Mousson cover.
    Kalambaki
    Dimos Kalam/Kas 1999. Afo: Maniedaki Til: 5591.136-137-138
    Deyat Ombria Topizogloy Los
    Kavala
    Dimos Kavalas 1961
    Xythria Aggelopoulos Kavala
    Levkados
    Dimos Levkados 198
    Dimos Levkados 1983
    Litochoro
    Baloykas G 9802 Katerini
    Messalongi
    A Stylianiai 780048. Also seen in Agios Nikolaos, Chalkadiki.
    OAP Xytirion X.Papavasileo
    Nafplio
    Leya 1997. A Stylianidi 780048
    D. O. Anatidstopoyloi 1908 []opsmos As[...]. An unusually early dated example, but the text is unclear.
    Neos Marmoras
    D. Sithonias T D Marmara
    Xytiria Misailidi Thes-Niki 650657
    Pylos
    Xytiria Metallon. Afoi Maniedaki Til.: 5591.136-137-138
    Rhodes
    D.E.Y.A.R. Apoxeteysi. Pont à Mousson. Aksess 400
    D.E.Y.A.R. Ombria. Also a Pont-à-Mousson cover.
    Rio
    Deya Rioy
    Sparta
    Deyas 1987 A-Siagkris T 3460595
    Xytiria Metallon. A Siagkris T 3460595
    Thessaloniki
    Dimos Thessalonikis Istoriko Kentro 1996. Xytiria Misailidi
    Dimos Thessaloniki. A strongly embossed pattern reminiscent of older French manhole covers.
    Afoi Misaildi Xytiria Thes-niki 681 657 1997 OAB
    D[imos] Th[essaloniki] 1953
    Tolo
    Afoi Misaildi Xytiria Thes-niki 681 657 1995 OAB
    Trikala
    Deyat Etos 1983 Maniedaki Afoi Til 5575225

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    Last revised: 22 Apr 2011

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